וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בֹּא אֶל־פַּרְעֹה וְדִבַּרְתָּ אֵלָיו כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי הָעִבְרִים שַׁלַּח אֶת־עַמִּי 9:1
Exod. 9:1 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Go to Pharoah and you shall declare to him: ‘Thus says the Lord, God of the Hebrews: ‘Let My people go so they may serve Me.’
The last word in the verse, וְיַעַבְדֻנִי, translated as so they may serve Me, contains a non-inverting vav prefix. The verb is a third-person imperfect consequence of the action Let ... go. [Return to Exod. 10:3]
כִּי אִם־מָאֵן אַתָּה לְשַׁלֵּחַ וְעֹודְךָ מַחֲזִיק בָּם 9:2
Exod. 9:2 ‘For if you refuse to let go and will again try holding on to them,
הִנֵּה יַד־יְהוָה הֹויָה בְּמִקְנְךָ אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׂדֶה בַּסּוּסִים בַּחֲמֹרִים בַּגְּמַלִּים בַּבָּקָר וּבַצֹּאן דֶּבֶר כָּבֵד מְאֹד 9:3
Exod. 9:3 behold, the hand of the Lord shall be bringing to pass a very grievous pestilence upon your cattle that are in the field, upon the horses, upon the asses, upon the camels, upon the oxen, and upon the sheep.’
וְהִפְלָה יְהוָה בֵּין מִקְנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וּבֵין מִקְנֵה מִצְרָיִם וְלֹא יָמוּת מִכָּל־לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל דָּבָר 9:4
Exod. 9:4 ‘And the Lord shall distinguish between the cattle of Israel and the cattle of Egypt that pestilence shall kill none of the children of Israel’s.’
וַיָּשֶׂם יְהוָה מֹועֵד לֵאמֹר מָחָר יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה בָּאָרֶץ 9:5
Exod. 9:5 ‘And the Lord has assigned a time saying, ‘The Lord shall do this thing in the land tomorrow.’”
וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוָה אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה מִמָּחֳרָת וַיָּמָת כֹּל מִקְנֵה מִצְרָיִם וּמִמִּקְנֵה בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא־מֵת אֶחָד 9:6
Exod. 9:6 Then the Lord did this thing the next day and all the livestock of Egypt died, but of the livestock of the children of Israel not one died.
וַיִּשְׁלַח פַּרְעֹה וְהִנֵּה לֹא־מֵת מִמִּקְנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד־אֶחָד וַיִּכְבַּד לֵב פַּרְעֹה וְלֹא שִׁלַּח אֶת־הָעָם 9:7
Exod. 9:7 When Pharoah sent out, then behold, not even one of the cattle of Israel had died. But the heart of Pharoah was hardened and he did not let the people go.
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן קְחוּ לָכֶם מְלֹא חָפְנֵיכֶם פִּיחַ כִּבְשָׁן וּזְרָקֹו מֹשֶׁה הַשָּׁמַיְמָה לְעֵינֵי 9:8
Exod. 9:8 Then the Lord said to Moses and to Aaron, “Take handfuls of furnace soot for yourselves and you, Moses, shall scatter it toward the heavens for the eyes of Pharoah.”
וְהָיָה לְאָבָק עַל כָּל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְהָיָה עַל־הָאָדָם וְעַל־הַבְּהֵמָה לִשְׁחִין פֹּרֵחַ אֲבַעְבֻּעֹת בְּכָל־אֶרֶץ 9:9
Exod. 9:9 “And it shall become as dust over all the land of Egypt and it shall cause an eruption sprouting boils upon human and upon beast throughout the land of Egypt.”
וַיִּקְחוּ אֶת־פִּיחַ הַכִּבְשָׁן וַיַּעַמְדוּ לִפְנֵי פַרְעֹה וַיִּזְרֹק אֹתֹו מֹשֶׁה הַשָּׁמָיְמָה וַיְהִי שְׁחִין אֲבַעְבֻּעֹת פֹּרֵחַ 9:10
Exod. 9:10 So they took soot of the furnace and stood before Pharoah, and Moses scattered it toward the heavens and an eruption of boils came about, breaking out on human and on beast.
וְלֹא־יָכְלוּ הַחַרְטֻמִּים לַעֲמֹד לִפְנֵי מֹשֶׁה מִפְּנֵי הַשְּׁחִין כִּי־הָיָה הַשְּׁחִין בַּחֲרְטֻםִּם וּבְכָל־מִצְרָיִם 9:11
Exod. 9:11 And the magicians were not able to stand before Moses because of the eruption, for the eruption was on the magicians and on all the Egyptians.
וַיְחַזֵּק יְהוָה אֶת־לֵב פַּרְעֹה וְלֹא שָׁמַע אֲלֵהֶם כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה 9:12
Exod. 9:12 But the Lord hardened the heart of Pharoah so he did not hearken to them, as the Lord had spoken to Moses.
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הַשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וְהִתְיַצֵּב לִפְנֵי פַרְעֹה וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי 9:13
הָעִבְרִים שַׁלַּח אֶת־עַמִּי וְיַעַבְדֻנִי
Exod. 9:13 And the Lord said to Moses, “Rise up early in the morning and stand before Pharoah, and you shall say to him, “Thus says the Lord, God of the Hebrews: ‘Let My people go so they may serve Me.’”
There is the identical situation as in v. 9:1, with a non-inverting vav prefixing a third-person imperfect consequence. Please refer back to that verse. [Return to Exod. 10:3]
כִּי בַּפַּעַם הַזֹּאת אֲנִי שֹׁלֵחַ אֶת־כָּל־מַגֵּפֹתַי אֶל־לִבְּךָ וּבַעֲבָדֶיךָ וּבְעַמֶּךָ בַּעֲבוּר תֵּדַע כִּי אֵין כָּמֹנִי 9:14
Exod. 9:14 “For at this time I shall be bringing all My plagues to your heart and upon your servants and upon your people so that you may know that there is none like Me in all the earth.”
כִּי עַתָּה שָׁלַחְתִּי אֶת־יָדִי וָאַךְ אֹותְךָ וְאֶת־עַמְּךָ בַּדָּבֶר וַתִּכָּחֵד מִן־הָאָרֶץ 9:15
Exod. 9:15 “Therefore now I stretch forth My hand and will strike you and your people with pestilence and cut you off from the earth,
וְאוּלָם בַּעֲבוּר זֹאת הֶעֱמַדְתִּיךָ בַּעֲבוּר הַרְאֹתְךָ אֶת־כֹּחִי וּלְמַעַן סַפֵּר שְׁמִי בְּכָל־הָאָרֶץ 9:16
Exod. 9:16 but, however, with this intent: I will make you stand fast in order to show you My power and with the purpose of My name being declared throughout the earth.”
Verse 9:15 above contains a first-person imperfect verb with a non-inverting vav prefix. It is the sixth word in the verse, translated as and will strike.
עֹודְךָ מִסְתֹּולֵל בְּעַמִּי לְבִלְתִּי שַׁלְּחָם 9:17
Exod. 9:17 “Repeatedly you have been exalting yourself with My people, not letting them go.”
הִנְנִי מַמְטִיר כָּעֵת מָחָר בָּרָד כָּבֵד מְאֹד אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הָיָה כָמֹהוּ בְּמִצְרַיִם לְמִן־הַיֹּום הִוָּסְדָה וְעַד־עָתָּה 9:18
Exod. 9:18 “Behold, I will be sending a rain of very grievous hail at this time tomorrow such as the likes of which has not occurred in Egypt since the day of its founding even until now.”
וְעַתָּה שְׁלַח הָעֵז אֶת־מִקְנְךָ וְאֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר לְךָ בַּשָּׂדֶה כָּל־הָאָדָם וְהַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר־יִמָּצֵא בַשָּׂדֶה 9:19
וְלֹא יֵאָסֵף הַבַּיְתָה וְיָרַד עֲלֵהֶם הַבָּרָד וָמֵתוּ
Exod. 9:19 “So now send out, gather your cattle and all that is yours in the field. Any human or animal that will be found in the field that would not have been gathered home, then the hail will come down on them and they will die.”
This verse carries an implication in its language. If the cattle had all been killed in earlier plagues, how were there still some left? It might be that (1) some time had passed between the last plague and this one. At least one season would have to have elapsed during which other cattle could have been imported (or taken from the Hebrews) to breed new livestock. Otherwise, we would have to conclude that (2) the scribe exaggerated when he said that all the cattle had been killed, or (3) the scribe had erred once more, in a memory lapse from which he would not have recovered. I don’t believe it. Of the three possibilities, only the second one seems reasonable. After all, there are other exaggerations in the bible, especially when it comes to using the word “all,” as in “and all the livestock of Egypt died” (v. 9:6).
הַיָּרֵא אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה מֵעַבְדֵי פַּרְעֹה הֵנִיס אֶת־עֲבָדָיו וְאֶת־מִקְנֵהוּ אֶל־הַבָּתִּים 9:20
Exod. 9:20 Any of the servants of Pharoah who feared the word of the Lord made his servants and his cattle flee to the shelters.
וַאֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָׂם לִבֹּו אֶל־דְּבַר יְהוָה וַיַּעֲזֹב אֶת־עֲבָדָיו וְאֶת־מִקְנֵהוּ בַּשָּׂדֶה 9:21
Exod. 9:21 But whoever did not pay attention to the word of the Lord, then he left his servants and his cattle in the field.
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה נְטֵה אֶת־יָדְךָ עַל־הַשָּׁמַיִם וִיהִי בָרָד בְּכָל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם עַל־הָאָדָם וְעַל־ 9:22
הַבְּהֵמָה וְעַל כָּל־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם
Exod. 9:22 And the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch forth your hand toward the heavens so there will be hail throughout the land of Egypt upon human and upon beast and upon every herb of the field in the land of Egypt.”
The ninth word in the verse, וִיהִי, translated as so there will be, contains a non-inverting vav. The verb is the third- person imperfect consequence of the preceding action Stretch forth.
וַיֵּט מֹשֶׁה אֶת־מַטֵּהוּ עַל־הַשָּׁמַיִם וַיהוָה נָתַן קֹלֹת וּבָרָד וַתִּהֲלַךְ אֵשׁ אָרְצָה וַיַּמְטֵר יְהוָה בָּרָד עַל־9:23
Exod. 9:23 And Moses stretched forth his staff toward the heavens and the Lord brought thunder and hail, and fire went down to the ground. So the Lord brought a rain of hail upon the land of Egypt.
Notice that once more Moses doesn’t follow the Lord’s instructions to the letter. In v. 9:22 the Lord tells Moses to stretch forth his hand, but in this verse, Moses stretches forth his staff. See Exod. 3:18 for perhaps the first instance of Moses’ altering the Lord’s instruction.
[Return to Exod. 10:13] [Return to Exod. 14:21] [Return to Levi. 8:13]
[Return to Levi. 20:14] [Return to Numb. 20:11]
וַיְהִי בָרָד וְאֵשׁ מִתְלַקַּחַת בְּתֹוךְ הַבָּרָד כָּבֵד מְאֹד אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הָיָה כָמֹהוּ בְּכָל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מֵאָז 9:24
Exod. 9:24 And there was hail, and fire flashing down in the midst of the hail, so very grievous that the likes of it had not occurred in all the land of Egypt since it had appeared as a nation.
וַיַּךְ הַבָּרָד בְּכָל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׂדֶה מֵאָדָם וְעַד־בְּהֵמָה וְאֵת כָּל־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה הִכָּה 9:25
הַבָּרָד וְאֶת־כָּל־עֵץ הַשָּׂדֶה שִׁבֵּר
Exod. 9:25 And the hail struck all that were in the field, whether human or beast, throughout the land of Egypt, and the hail struck every herb of the field and shattered every tree of the field.
רַק בְּאֶרֶץ גֹּשֶׁן אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא הָיָה בָּרָד 9:26
Exod. 9:26 Only in the land of Goshen wherein the children of Israel were, there was no hail.
וַיִּשְׁלַח פַּרְעֹה וַיִּקְרָא לְמֹשֶׁה וּלְאַהֲרֹן וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם חָטָאתִי הַפָּעַם יְהוָה הַצַּדִּיק וַאֲנִי וְעַמִּי 9:27
Exod. 9:27 And Pharoah sent and called for Moses and for Aaron and said to them, “I have sinned this time. The Lord is righteous but I and my people are wicked.”
הַעְתִּירוּ אֶל־יְהוָה וְרַב מִהְיֹת קֹלֹת אֱלֹהִים וּבָרָד וַאֲשַׁלְּחָה אֶתְכֶם וְלֹא תֹסִפוּן לַעֲמֹד 9:28
Exod. 9:28 “Pray to the Lord that the thunder of God and the hail are becoming too much; then I will let you go and you need not continue to stay.”
The fifth word from the end of the verse, hx'L.v;a]w, translated as then I will let ... go, contains a non-inverting vav prefix. The verb is first-person imperfect.
וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מֹשֶׁה כְּצֵאתִי אֶת־הָעִיר אֶפְרֹשׂ אֶת־כַּפַּי אֶל־יְהוָה הַקֹּלֹות יֶחְדָּלוּן וְהַבָּרָד לֹא יִהְיֶה־עֹוד 9:29
לְמַעַן תֵּדַע כִּי לַיהוָה הָאָרֶץ
Exod. 9:29 And Moses said to him, “When I leave the city I will spread forth my open hands to the Lord. The thunderbolts shall end and the hail shall be no more, in order that you may know that the earth is the Lord’s.”
וְאַתָּה וַעֲבָדֶיךָ יָדַעְתִּי כִּי טֶרֶם תִּירְאוּן מִפְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים 9:30
Exod. 9:30 “But I know that you and your servants will not yet be reverent before the Mighty Lord.”
וְהַפִּשְׁתָּה וְהַשְּׂעֹרָה נֻכָּתָה כִּי הַשְּׂעֹרָה אָבִיב וְהַפִּשְׁתָּה גִּבְעֹל 9:31
Exod. 9:31 Now, the flax was destroyed, and the barley, for the barley was green and the flax was budding.
וְהַחִטָּה וְהַכֻּסֶּמֶת לֹא נֻכּוּ כִּי אֲפִילֹת הֵנָּה 9:32
Exod. 9:32 But the wheat and the spelt were not destroyed, for they were ripe.
וַיֵּצֵא מֹשֶׁה מֵעִם פַּרְעֹה אֶת־הָעִיר וַיִּפְרֹשׂ כַּפָּיו אֶל־יְהוָה וַיַּחְדְּלוּ הַקֹּלֹות וְהַבָּרָד וּמָטָר לֹא־נִתַּךְ 9:33
Exod. 9:33 Then Moses left the city from Pharoah and spread forth his open hands to the Lord and the thunderbolts and the hail ended, and the rain no longer poured onto the earth.
וַיַּרְא פַּרְעֹה כִּי־חָדַל הַמָּטָר וְהַבָּרָד וְהַקֹּלֹת וַיֹּסֶף לַחֲטֹא וַיַּכְבֵּד לִבֹּו הוּא וַעֲבָדָיו 9:34
Exod. 9:34 When Pharoah saw that the rain and the hail and the thunderbolts had ended, then he added to the sin and hardened his heart, he and his servants.
וַיֶּחֱזַק לֵב פַּרְעֹה וְלֹא שִׁלַּח אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה 9:35
Exod.9:35 So the heart of Pharoah was hardened so he did not let the children of Israel go, as the Lord had spoken by the hand of Moses.
In this chapter we have the following expressions about the hardening of Pharoah’s heart. In v. 9:7 and v. 9:35 Pharoah’s heart was hardened, and in v. 9:12 the Lord hardened Pharoah’s heart.
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