Jeremiah 48

 

לְמֹואָב כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאֹות אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֹוי אֶל־נְבֹו כִּי שֻׁדָּדָה הֹבִישָׁה נִלְכְּדָה קִרְיָתָיִם   48:1         הֹבִישָׁה הַמִּשְׂגָּב וָחָתָּה׃

Jere. 48:1   For Moab:

                     Thus says the Lord of hosts, God of Israel:

                              “Woe to Nebo!

                      For it is spoiled.

                              Kiriathaim is shamed, captured;

                      Misgab is shamed, and shattered.”

Nebo, Kiriathaim, and Misgab were cities and/or places in Moab.

אֵין עֹוד תְּהִלַּת מֹואָב בְּחֶשְׁבֹּון חָשְׁבוּ עָלֶיהָ רָעָה לְכוּ וְנַכְרִיתֶנָּה מִגֹּוי גַּם־מַדְמֵן תִּדֹּמִּי אַחֲרַיִךְ   48:2      תֵּלֶךְ חָרֶב׃

Jere. 48:2   “There is no more praise of Moab.

                               In Heshbon they devise evil against her,

                      ‘Come and we shall eliminate her

                               from being a nation.’

                      Madmen, you also shall be struck dumb;

                               the sword shall come after you.”

Heshbon and Madmen were cities (or places) in Moab.

קֹול צְעָקָה מֵחֹרֹונָיִם שֹׁד וָשֶׁבֶר גָּדֹול׃   48:3

Jere. 48:3   A noise, an outcry from Horonaim!

                               Violence and a loud crashing!

Horonaim was a town in Moab.

נִשְׁבְּרָה מֹואָב הִשְׁמִיעוּ זְּעָקָה (צְעֹורֶיהָ) [צְעִירֶיהָ]׃   48:4

Jere. 48:4   Moab is crushed.

                               Her little ones

                      have caused a cry to be heard.

The word in parentheses is misspelled, having a vav in place of a yad.  The correction is made in the brackets.

כִּי מַעֲלֵה (הַלֻּחֹות) [הַלּוּחִית] בִּבְכִי יַעֲלֶה־בֶּכִי כִּי בְּמֹורַד חֹורֹנַיִם צָרֵי צַעֲקַת־שֶׁבֶר שָׁמֵעוּ׃   48:5

Jere. 48:5   For a weeping shall rise up

                               the ascent of Luhith

                     with a weeping,

                               for in the descent of Horonaim

                      the distresses of the outcry of ruin are heard.

The word in parentheses is the name of the town of Luhith and it is misspelled.  The correction in the brackets inserts a vav and replaces the vav that’s there with a yad.

נֻסוּ מַלְּטוּ נַפְשְׁכֶם וְתִהְיֶינָה כַּעֲרֹועֵר בַּמִּדְבָּר׃   48:6

Jere. 48:6   Flee, save your life,

                              or be like a stripped tree

                      in the wilderness.

כִּי יַעַן בִּטְחֵךְ בְּמַעֲשַׂיִךְ וּבְאֹוצְרֹותַיִךְ גַּם־אַתְּ תִּלָּכֵדִי וְיָצָא (כְמִישׁ) [כְמֹושׁ] בַּגֹּולָה כֹּהֲנָיו וְשָׂרָיו   48:7     יַחַד׃

Jere. 48:7   But because of your reliance

                               on your works

                      and on your possessions,

                               you also shall be taken,

                      and Chemosh shall depart into captivity,

                               his priests and his princes likewise.

Chemosh was the national god of Moab.  His name is misspelled here in the parentheses.  The yad should be a vav.  The correct spelling is in the brackets.

וְיָבֹא שֹׁדֵד אֶל־כָּל־עִיר וְעִיר לֹא תִמָּלֵט וְאָבַד הָעֵמֶק וְנִשְׁמַד הַמִּישֹׁר אֲשֶׁר אָמַר יְהוָה׃   48:8

Jere. 48:8   And the despoiler

                               to every city shall come,

                      so no city shall be saved.

                               And the valley shall be destroyed

                      and the plain annihilated.

                               That has the Lord spoken.

תְּנוּ־צִיץ לְמֹואָב כִּי נָצֹא תֵּצֵא וְעָרֶיהָ לְשַׁמָּה תִהְיֶינָה מֵאֵין יֹושֵׁב בָּהֵן׃   48:9

Jere. 48:9   Give wing to Moab,

                                for she must go forth to fly,

                      though her cities shall become for a wasteland,

                                without an inhabitant in them.

אָרוּר עֹשֶׂה מְלֶאכֶת יְהוָה רְמִיָּה וְאָרוּר מֹנֵעַ חַרְבֹּו מִדָּם׃   48:10

Jere. 48:10   Cursed is he who does

                                 the work of the Lord half-heartedly,

                        and cursed is he

                                 restraining his sword from blood.

שַׁאֲנַן מוֹאָב מִנְּעוּרָיו וְשֹׁקֵט הוּא אֶל־שְׁמָרָיו וְלֹא־הוּרַק מִכְּלִי אֶל־כֶּלִי וּבַגּוֹלָה לֹא הָלָךְ עַל־כֵּן   48:11

עָמַד טַעְמוֹ בּוֹ וְרֵיחוֹ לֹא נָמָר׃

Jere. 48:11   Moab has been at peace

                                 from his early times,

                        and he has lain undisturbed

                                 by his sediment,

                        as he has not been poured

                                 from vessel to vessel,

                        as he has never gone into captivity.

                                Therefore his taste

                        endures with him

                                 and his scent

                        has not been changed.

לָכֵן הִנֵּה־יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְשִׁלַּחְתִּי־לֹו צֹעִים וְצֵעֻהוּ וְכֵלָיו יָרִיקוּ וְנִבְלֵיהֶם יְנַפֵּצוּ׃   48:12

Jere. 48:12   “Therefore behold, the days are coming,”

                                  declares the Lord,

                        “when I will send overturners to him,

                                  and they shall overturn him,

                        and they shall empty his vessels

                                  and shatter their pitchers.”

וּבֹשׁ מֹואָב מִכְּמֹושׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר־בֹּשׁוּ בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל מִבֵּית אֵל מִבְטֶחָם׃   48:13

Jere. 48:13   Then Moab shall be more shamed

                                  by Chemosh

                        than the house of Israel were shamed

                                  by their trusted Beth-el.

The comparison of Chemosh to Beth-el is a bit of a stretch.  As I mentioned before, Chemosh was the national god of Moab.  Beth-el was the city in which Jeroboam set one of the two golden calves he had made (1Kin. 12:28).

אֵיךְ תֹּאמְרוּ גִּבֹּורִים אֲנָחְנוּ וְאַנְשֵׁי־חַיִל לַמִּלְחָמָה׃   48:14

Jere. 48:14   How can you say,

                                  “We are strong men

                        and men of might for battle?”

שֻׁדַּד מֹואָב וְעָרֶיהָ עָלָה וּמִבְחַר בַּחוּרָיו יָרְדוּ לַטָּבַח נְאֻם־הַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוָה צְבָאֹות שְׁמֹו׃   48:15

Jere. 48:15   “Moab is spoiled,

                                  and he has ascended her cities,

                        and the best of his young men

                                  have descended to the slaughter,”

                        declares the King

                                  (the Lord of hosts is His name).

קָרֹוב אֵיד־מֹואָב לָבֹוא וְרָעָתֹו מִהֲרָה מְאֹד׃   48:16

Jere. 48:16   The calamity of Moab is soon to come,

                                  and his misery will be very precipitous.

נֻדוּ לֹו כָּל־סְבִיבָיו וְכֹל יֹדְעֵי שְׁמֹו אִמְרוּ אֵיכָה נִשְׁבַּר מַטֵּה־עֹז מַקֵּל תִּפְאָרָה׃   48:17

Jere. 48:17   Show grief for him,

                                  all surrounding him

                        and all knowing his name!

                                  Say, “How the strong staff has broken,

                        the beautiful rod!”

The name Moab has been treated as a feminine noun until this verse.  Here it becomes temporarily masculine, returning to feminine in the next verse. But it is also masculine in some other verses below.

רְדִי מִכָּבֹוד (יֹשְׁבֶי) [וּשְׁבִי] בַצָּמָא יֹשֶׁבֶת בַּת־דִּיבֹון כִּי־שֹׁדֵד מֹואָב עָלָה בָךְ שִׁחֵת מִבְצָרָיִךְ׃   48:18

Jere. 48:18   Sink from abundance

                                 and dwell in thirst,

                        abiding daughter of Dibon!

                                 For the despoiler of Moab

                        rises up against you

                                  to destroy your strongholds.

The word in the parentheses is spelled with a yad, but it should be a vav prefix, to be appropriately translated as the imperative and dwell rather than the imperfect active verb will dwell.  The correction is in the brackets.

אֶל־דֶּרֶךְ עִמְדִי וְצַפִּי יֹושֶׁבֶת עֲרֹועֵר שַׁאֲלִי־נָס וְנִמְלָטָה אִמְרִי מַה־נִּהְיָתָה׃   48:19

Jere. 48:19   Stand and watch by the way,

                                  dweller of Aroer!

                        Ask the departing and the escaping!

                                  Say, “What has happened?”

הֹבִישׁ מֹואָב כִּי־חַתָּה (הֵילִילִי) [הֵילִילוּ) [וּזְעָקִי] [וּזְעָקוּ] הַגִּידוּ בְאַרְנֹון כִּי שֻׁדַּד מֹואָב׃   48:20

Jere. 48:20   Moab is put to shame,

                                   for it is dismayed.

                       Wail and cry!

                                   Announce in Arnon

                        that Moab is spoiled.

In this verse Moab appears to be both genders.  The word translated as is put to shame is masculine, but the word translated as it is dismayed is feminine.   Moreover, the words for Wail and Cry are feminine in the original (in the pairs of parentheses), but the corrections in the pairs of brackets make them masculine, apparently to conform to the gender of the next word, translated as Announce, which is masculine.  I don’t think the correction is necessary; I suspect that Jeremiah had two different subjects and two different audiences, or intended to be all inclusive, including the men and the women as he has before.  Is it possible?  I can see it is.  Here’s how:  The first two lines (in the English) treat Moab as both masculine and feminine, perhaps relating to the king of Moab (masculine) and the land of Moab (feminine).  The third line is addressed to the women of Moab, and the fourth line is addressed to the men.                                                                                                                 [Return to Jere. 50:2]

וּמִשְׁפָּט בָּא אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַמִּישֹׁר אֶל־חֹלֹון וְאֶל־יַהְצָה וְעַל־(מֹופָעַת) [מֵיפָעַת]׃   48:21

Jere. 48:21   And judgment comes to the country of the plain, to Holon, and to Jahzah, and upon Mephaath,

The last word in this verse, the name Mephaath, appearing in the parentheses, is misspelled.  It should have a yad in place of the vav.  The correction is in the Brackets.

וְעַל־דִּיבֹון וְעַל־נְבֹו וְעַל־בֵּית דִּבְלָתָיִם׃   48:22

Jere. 48:22   and upon Dibon, and upon Nebo, and upon Beth-diblataim,

וְעַל קִרְיָתַיִם וְעַל־בֵּית גָּמוּל וְעַל־בֵּית מְעֹון׃   48:23

Jere. 48:23   and upon Kiriathaim, and upon Beth-gamul, and upon Beth-meon,

וְעַל־קְרִיֹּות וְעַל־בָּצְרָה וְעַל כָּל־עָרֵי אֶרֶץ מֹואָב הָרְחֹקֹות וְהַקְּרֹבֹות׃   48:24

Jere. 48:24   and upon Kirioth, and upon Bozrah, and upon all the cities of the land of Moab, far and near.

נִגְדְּעָה קֶרֶן מֹואָב וּזְרֹעֹו נִשְׁבָּרָה נְאֻם יְהוָה׃   48:25

Jere. 48:25   “The horn of Moab is cut off,

                                  and his arm is broken,”

                        declares the Lord.

הַשְׁכִּירֻהוּ כִּי עַל־יְהוָה הִגְדִּיל וְסָפַק מֹואָב בְּקִיאֹו וְהָיָה לִשְׂחֹק גַּם־הוּא׃   48:26

Jere. 48:26   Assume he was drunk,

                                  for he magnified himself

                        above the Lord.

                                  Now Moab shall splash

                        in his own vomit,

                                  and he also will be in derision.

וְאִם לֹוא הַשְּׂחֹק הָיָה לְךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אִם־בְּגַנָּבִים (נִמְצָאָה) [נִמְצָא] כִּי־מִדֵּי דְבָרֶיךָ בֹּו תִּתְנֹודָד׃   48:27

Jere. 48:27   But was not the derision of Israel

                                  greater for You than

                        if he was found among thieves?

                                  For as often as Your speeches about him,

                        You would disapprove?

The word in parentheses, translated as was found, is in its feminine form when it should be masculine, having for its subject the pronoun he.  The correction in the brackets removes the heh.

עִזְבוּ עָרִים וְשִׁכְנוּ בַּסֶּלַע יֹשְׁבֵי מֹואָב וִהְיוּ כְיֹונָה תְּקַןֵּן בְּעֶבְרֵי פִי־פָחַת׃   48:28

Jere. 48:28   Leave the cities and settle in the rocks,

                                  dwellers of Moab,

                        and exist as a dove

                                  would make a nest

                        on the sides of the opening of a hole.

שָׁמַעְנוּ גְאֹון־מֹואָב גֵּאֶה מְאֹד גָּבְהֹו וּגְאֹונֹו וְגַאֲוָתֹו וְרֻם לִבֹּו׃   48:29

Jere. 48:29   We have heard of the arrogance of Moab,

                                  abundantly proud,

                        his loftiness and his majesty

                                  and his haughtiness,

                        and the elevation of his heart.

אֲנִי יָדַעְתִּי נְאֻם־יְהוָה עֶבְרָתֹו וְלֹא־כֵן בַּדָּיו לֹא־כֵן עָשׂוּ׃   48:30

Jere. 48:30   “I know of his arrogance,”

                                  declares the Lord,

                        “and it is not appropriate.

                                  His pretensions

                        have produced nothing of value.”

עַל־כֵּן עַל־מֹואָב אֲיֵלִיל וּלְמֹואָב כֻּלֹּה אֶזְעָק אֶל־אַנְשֵׁי קִיר־חֶרֶשׂ יֶהְגֶּה׃  48:31

Jere. 48:31   “Therefore I will wail over Moab,

                                  and for Moab, all of him,

                        I will cry out.”

                                  On account of the men of Kir-heres

                       He will moan.

מִבְּכִי יַעְזֵר אֶבְכֶּה־לָּךְ הַגֶּפֶן שִׂבְמָה נְטִישֹׁתַיִךְ עָבְרוּ יָם עַד יָם יַעְזֵר נָגָעוּ עַל־קֵיצֵךְ וְעַל־בְּצִירֵךְ  48:32      שֹׁדֵד נָפָל׃

Jere. 48:32   I will weep for you, the vine of Sibmah,

                                  more than the weeping of Jazer.

                       Your tendrils have crossed over the sea;

                                   they reached to the sea of Jazer.

                       The Spoiler falls upon your summer fruits

                                   and upon your vintage.

The towns of Jazer and Sibmah were near each other in a region that was known for its vineyards.

וְנֶאֶסְפָה שִׂמְחָה וָגִיל מִכַּרְמֶל וּמֵאֶרֶץ מֹואָב וְיַיִן מִיקָבִים הִשְׁבַּתִּי לֹא־יִדְרֹךְ הֵידָד הֵידָד לֹא הֵידָד׃  48:33

Jere. 48:33   “And gladness will be removed,

                                   as well as rejoicing,

                        from the orchard and from the land of Moab;

                                   and I have made cease

                        wine from the winepresses.

                                   None shall tread shouting.

                        Shouting?  No shouting!”

מִזַּעֲקַת חֶשְׁבֹּון עַד־אֶלְעָלֵה עַד־יַהַץ נָתְנוּ קֹולָם מִצֹּעַר עַד־חֹרֹנַיִם עֶגְלַת שְׁלִשִׁיָּה כִּי גַּם־מֵי  48:34            נִמְרִים לִמְשַׁמֹּות יִהְיוּ׃

Jere. 48:34   From the outcry of Heshbon

                                   as far as Elealeh,

                        even to Jahaz,

                                    they lend their voice;

                        from Zoar to Horonaim,

                                    a heifer three years old.

                       Surely also the waters of Nimrim

                                   will be devastated.

Here Jeremiah compares Moab to a full-grown heifer.  Also apparently water will be dried up in a place not known today (Nimrim), presumably because its source was dammed up.

וְהִשְׁבַּתִּי לְמֹואָב נְאֻם־יְהוָה מַעֲלֶה בָמָה וּמַקְטִיר לֵאלֹהָיו׃  48:35

Jere. 48:35   “And I will put an end in Moab,”

                                   declares the Lord,

                        “to the ascender of the high places

                                   and the offerer to his gods.”

עַל־כֵּן לִבִּי לְמֹואָב כַּחֲלִלִים יֶהֱמֶה וְלִבִּי אֶל־אַנְשֵׁי קִיר־חֶרֶשׂ כַּחֲלִילִים יֶהֱמֶה עַל־כֵּן יִתְרַת עָשָׂה  48:36

 אָבָדוּ׃

Jere. 48:36   Therefore my heart shall moan

                                   for Moab like flutes,

                        and my heart shall moan on account

                                  of the men of Kir-heres like flutes.

                        Therefore the riches he produced perish.

כִּי כָל־רֹאשׁ קָרְחָה וְכָל־זָקָן גְּרֻעָה עַל כָּל־יָדַיִם גְּדֻדֹת וְעַל־מָתְנַיִם שָׂק׃  48:37

Jere. 48:37   Then every head will be bald

                                  and every beard clipped;

                         the cuttings will be

                                  upon all the hands,

                         and sackcloth on the loins.

These were mainly some of the pagan rites of mourning.  But many Jews had adopted them, so some were also Jewish (except for the cuttings), and Jeremiah was familiar with them.

עַל כָּל־גַּגֹּות מֹואָב וּבִרְחֹבֹתֶיהָ כֻּלֹּה מִסְפֵּד כִּי־שָׁבַרְתִּי אֶת־מֹואָב כִּכְלִי אֵין־חֵפֶץ בֹּו נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃  48:38

Jere. 48:38   “Upon all the housetops of Moab

                                   and in his plazas

                        everywhere shall be lamenting,

                                   for I crush Moab like a vessel

                        without pleasure in it,”

                                   declares the Lord.

אֵיךְ חַתָּה הֵילִילוּ אֵיךְ הִפְנָה־עֹרֶף מֹואָב בֹּושׁ וְהָיָה מֹואָב לִשְׂחֹק וְלִמְחִתָּה לְכָל־סְבִיבָיו׃  48:39

Jere. 48:39   How shattered!  Wail!

                                  How Moab turns the back shamefully,

                        so Moab shall be for scorn

                                  and for dismay.

כִּי־כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה הִנֵּה כַנֶּשֶׁר יִדְאֶה וּפָרַשׂ כְּנָפָיו אֶל־מֹואָב׃  48:40

Jere. 48:40   For thus says the Lord:

                                  “Behold, like a vulture

                        he shall swoop

                                  and spread his wings

                         toward Moab,

Presumably, the “he” in this verse refers to Nebuchadrezzar.

נִלְכְּדָה הַקְּרִיֹּות וְהַמְּצָדֹות נִתְפָּשָׂה וְהָיָה לֵב גִּבֹּורֵי מֹואָב בַּיֹּום הַהוּא כְּלֵב אִשָּׁה מְצֵרָה׃   48:41

Jere. 48:41   capturing the towns

                                  and seizing the strongholds.

                        And the heart of the mighty men of Moab

                                  shall be on that day

                         like the heart of a distressed woman.”

וְנִשְׁמַד מֹואָב מֵעָם כִּי עַל־יְהוָה הִגְדִּיל׃   48:42

Jere. 48:42   Then Moab shall be annihilated as a people,

                                   because he magnified himself

                        above the Lord.

פַּחַד וָפַחַת וָפָח עָלֶיךָ יֹושֵׁב מֹואָב נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃   48:43

Jere. 48:43   “Terror and the pit and the trap

                                   are upon you,

                        inhabitant of Moab,”

                                   declares the Lord.

הַנִּיס מִפְּנֵי הַפַּחַד יִפֹּל אֶל־הַפַּחַת וְהָעֹלֶה מִן־הַפַּחַת יִלָּכֵד בַּפָּח כִּי־אָבִיא אֵלֶיה אֶל־מֹואָב שְׁנַת    48:44 פְּקֻדָּתָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃

Jere. 48:44   “The retreater from before the terror

                                   shall fall into the pit and,

                        rising from the pit,

                                   will be snared by the trap,

                        for I shall bring to her, to Moab,

                                    the year of their visitation,”

                        declares the Lord.

בְּצֵל חֶשְׁבֹּון עָמְדוּ מִכֹּחַ נָסִים כִּי־אֵשׁ יָצָא מֵחֶשְׁבֹּון וְלֶהָבָה מִבֵּין סִיחֹון וַתֹּאכַל פְּאַת מֹואָב   48:45         וְקָדְקֹד בְּנֵי שָׁאֹון׃

Jere. 48:45   In the shadow of Heshbon

                                   the retreaters stand,

                       out of strength,

                                   for a fire goes forth

                       from Heshbon

                                   and a flame from

                       the middle of Sihon

                                    that devours

                       the corners of Moab

                                    and the heads

                       of roaring children.

אֹוי־לְךָ מֹואָב אָבַד עַם־כְּמֹושׁ כִּי־לֻקְּחוּ בָנֶיךָ בַּשֶּׁבִי וּבְנֹתֶיךָ בַּשִּׁבְיָה׃   48:46

Jere. 48:46   Woe to you, Moab!

                                   Perish, people of Chemosh!

                        For your children

                                   are being taken into captivity,

                       and your daughters into captivity.

וְשַׁבְתִּי שְׁבוּת־מֹואָב בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה עַד־הֵנָּה מִשְׁפַּט מֹואָב׃    48:47

Jere. 48:47   “Still, I will turn back

                                    the captivitiy of Moab

                        at the end of days,”

                                    declares the Lord.

                       The judgment of Moab

                                   will be until then.

Well, this is an interesting twist.  Instead iof being judged harshly at the end, Moab will be saved.

 

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