Some believe this psalm is the prayer of a deeply distressed individual. Others believe it is the voice of Israel. I imagine the latter is as fitting to the thoughts expressed here as the former. I suspect it is really the voice of Israel.
לַמְנַצֵּחַ לְדָוִד מִזְמוֹר אֱלֹהֵי תְהִלָּתִי אַל־תֶּחֱרַשׁ׃ 109:1
Psal. 109:1 A psalm for David's leader:
O God of my praise hymn,
may You not remain silent.
כִּי פִי רָשָׁע וּפִי־מִרְמָה עָלַי פָּתָחוּ דִּבְּרוּ אִתִּי לְשׁוֹן שָׁקֶר׃ 109:2
Psal. 109:2 For an evil mouth and a deceitful mouth have opened against me,
they use a lying tongue near me.
וְדִבְרֵי שִׂנְאָה סְבָבוּנִי וַיִּלָּחֲמוּנִי חִנָּם׃ 109:3
Psal. 109:3 And words of hatred surround me,
and they engage me in battle without cause.
תַּחַת־אַהֲבָתִי יִשְׂטְנוּנִי וַאֲנִי תְפִלָּה׃ 109:4
Psal. 109:4 In return for my love,
they would be my adversaries.
Yet I remain prayerful.
וַיָּשִׂימוּ עָלַי רָעָה תַּחַת טוֹבָה וְשִׂנְאָה תַּחַת אַהֲבָתִי׃ 109:5
Psal. 109:5 But they direct evil toward me in return for good
and hatred in return for my love:
הַפְקֵד עָלָיו רָשָׁע וְשָׂטָן יַעֲמֹד עַל־יְמִינוֹ׃ 109:6
Psal. 109:6 “Visit wickedness upon him,
and let Satan stand at his right hand.”
Some believe this verse begins a series of vehement curses by the oppressed individual (Israel, David, or the hymn leader?) directed against his oppressors. But notice that the number of the object changes in this and subsequent verses from the previous plural (the enemies) to now singular (the oppressed individual?). This leads me to believe that the psalmist is quoting the curses of his oppressors against him. And that’s why you find quote marks in this and subsequent verses. In addition, mention of Satan here must refer to his alleged function, that is, to be the adversary, the accuser.
בְּהִשָּׁפְטֹו יֵצֵא רָשָׁע וּתְפִלָּתֹו תִּהְיֶה לַחֲטָאָה׃ 109:7
Psal. 109:7 “On his being judged let him come out guilty,
and his prayer be as a sin.”
יִהְיוּ־יָמָיו מְעַטִּים פְּקֻדָּתוֹ יִקַּח אַחֵר׃ 109:8
Psal. 109:8 “Let his days be few;
let another take his store.”
יִהְיוּ־בָנָיו יְתוֹמִים וְאִשְׁתּוֹ אַלְמָנָה׃ 109:9
Psal. 109:9 “Let his children be orphans
and his wife a widow.”
וְנוֹעַ יָנוּעוּ בָנָיו וְשִׁאֵלוּ וְדָרְשׁוּ מֵחָרְבוֹתֵיהֶם׃ 109:10
Psal. 109:10 “And, trembling, let his children go wandering and begging,
and let them seek from their desolate wastes.”
יְנַקֵּשׁ נֹושֶׁה לְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־לֹו וְיָבֹזּוּ זָרִים יְגִיעֹו׃ 109:11
Psal. 109:11 “Let a creditor lay snares for all that is his,
and let strangers make spoil of his toil.”
אַל־יְהִי־לֹו מֹשֵׁךְ חָסֶד וְאַל־יְהִי חֹוןֵן לִיתֹומָיו׃ 109:12
Psal. 109:12 “Let there be no one extending kindness to him,
and let there be no one gracious to his orphans.”
יְהִי־אַחֲרִיתוֹ לְהַכְרִית בְּדוֹר אַחֵר יִמַּח שְׁמָם׃ 109:13
Psal. 109:13 “Let his posterity be destroyed.
Let their name be wiped out in the following generation.”
יִזָּכֵר עֲוֺן אֲבֹתָיו אֶל־יְהוָה וְחַטַּאת אִמּוֹ אַל־תִּמָּח׃ 109:14
Psal. 109:14 “Let the iniquity of his fathers be remembered by the Lord,
and let the sin of his mother not be blotted out.”
יִהְיוּ נֶגֶד־יְהוָה תָּמִיד וְיַכְרֵת מֵאֶרֶץ זִכְרָם׃ 109:15
Psal. 109:15 “Let them be before the Lord continually,
so He will cut their memory off from the earth,
יַעַן אֲשֶׁר לֹא זָכַר עֲשׂוֹת חָסֶד וַיִּרְדֹּף אִישׁ־עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן וְנִכְאֵה לֵבָב לְמוֹתֵת׃ 109:16
Psal. 109:16 for the reason that he did not think to deal kindly,
but persecuted anyone poor or needy,
and was dispatching the stricken of heart.”
וַיֶּאֱהַב קְלָלָה וַתְּבוֹאֵהוּ וְלֹא־חָפֵץ בִּבְרָכָה וַתִּרְחַק מִמֶּנּוּ׃ 109:17
Psal. 109:17 “And he loves cursing as it comes to him,
and he takes no pleasure in blessing,
as it is far from him.”
וַיִּלְבַּשׁ קְלָלָה כְּמַדּוֹ וַתָּבֹא כַמַּיִם בְּקִרְבּוֹ וְכַשֶּׁמֶן בְּעַצְמוֹתָיו׃ 109:18
Psal. 109:18 “And he wears a curse as if it were his garment,
and it goes like water through his insides
and like fat through his bones.”
תְּהִי־לֹו כְּבֶגֶד יַעְטֶה וּלְמֵזַח תָּמִיד יַחְגְּרֶהָ׃ 109:19
Psal. 109:19 “Let it be for him like a garment he must keep on,
and for a girdle with which he must continually gird himself.”
זֹאת פְּעֻלַּת שֹׂטְנַי מֵאֵת יְהוָה וְהַדֹּבְרִים רָע עַל־נַפְשִׁי׃ 109:20
Psal. 109:20 This should be the payment of my adversary from the Lord,
and of the speakers of evil against my soul.
With this verse, after telling us what he thinks his oppressors might say against him, I believe the psalmist resumes his prayer or hymn.
וְאַתָּה יְהוִה אֲדֹנָי עֲשֵׂה־אִתִּי לְמַעַן שְׁמֶךָ כִּי־טוֹב חַסְדְּךָ הַצִּילֵנִי׃ 109:21
Psal. 109:21 And You, O Lord, my Master,
deal with me for the sake of Your name.
Because Your mercy is good, deliver me.
כִּי־עָנִי וְאֶבְיוֹן אָנֹכִי וְלִבִּי חָלַל בְּקִרְבִּי׃ 109:22
Psal. 109:22 For I am poor and needy,
and my heart is wounded within me.
כְּצֵל־כִּנְטוֹתוֹ נֶהֱלָכְתִּי נִנְעַרְתִּי כָּאַרְבֶּה׃ 109:23
Psal. 109:23 As a shadow after its lengthening I dissipate,
I shiver as a locust.
בִּרְכַּי כָּשְׁלוּ מִצּוֹם וּבְשָׂרִי כָּחַשׁ מִשָּׁמֶן׃ 109:24
Psal. 109:24 My knees are feeble from fasting,
and my flesh is lacking fat.
וַאֲנִי הָיִיתִי חֶרְפָּה לָהֶם יִרְאוּנִי יְנִיעוּן רֹאשָׁם׃ 109:25
Psal. 109:25 And I am a disgrace to them.
Let them see me, they would shake their head.
עָזְרֵנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהָי הוֹשִׁיעֵנִי כְחַסְדֶּךָ׃ 109:26
Psal. 109:26 Help me, Lord, my God!
Save me according to Your mercy.
וְיֵדְעוּ כִּי־יָדְךָ זֹּאת אַתָּה יְהוָה עֲשִׂיתָהּ׃ 109:27
Psal. 109:27 And may they know that this is Your hand,
You, the Lord, have done it.
יְקַלְלוּ־הֵמָּה וְאַתָּה תְבָרֵךְ קָמוּ וַיֵּבֹשׁוּ וְעַבְדְּךָ יִשְׂמָח׃ 109:28
Psal. 109:28 They may curse, but You would bless.
They endure, but they will be shamed,
and Your servant shall rejoice.
יִלְבְּשׁוּ שׂוֹטְנַי כְּלִמָּה וְיַעֲטוּ כַמְעִיל בָּשְׁתָּם׃ 109:29
Psal. 109:29 Let those opposing me wear disgrace,
and let their shame envelop them as a robe.
אוֹדֶה יְהוָה מְאֹד בְּפִי וּבְתוֹךְ רַבִּים אֲהַלְלֶנּוּ׃ 109:30
Psal. 109:30 I will thank the Lord abundantly with my mouth,
and in the midst of many I will praise Him.
כִּי־יַעֲמֹד לִימִין אֶבְיוֹן לְהוֹשִׁיעַ מִשֹּׁפְטֵי נַפְשׁוֹ׃ 109:31
Psal. 109:31 For He will endure as the right hand of a needy one,
to save from the judges of his soul.
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