Numbers 28

 

וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר   28:1

Numb. 28:1  And the Lord spoke to Moses saying,

צַו אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אֶת־קָרְבָּנִי לַחְמִי לְאִשַּׁי רֵיחַ נִיחֹחִי תִּשְׁמְרוּ לְהַקְרִיב לִי בְּמֹועֲדֹו   28:2

Numb. 28:2  “Command the children of Israel, and you shall say to them, ‘You shall take heed to bring Me in its due season My offering of My food for My fire offering of a sweet scent to Me.’”

וְאָמַרְתָּ לָהֶם זֶה הָאִשֶּׁה אֲשֶׁר תַּקְרִיבוּ לַיהוָה כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה תְמִיםִם שְׁנַיִם לַיֹּום עֹלָה תָמִיד   28:3

Numb. 28:3  “And you shall say to them, ‘This is the fire offering that you shall bring to the Lord:  He-lamb yearlings without blemish, two each day, a continual burnt offering.’

אֶת־הַכֶּבֶשׂ אֶחָד תַּעֲשֶׂה בַבֹּקֶר וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם   28:4

Numb. 28:4  ‘You shall offer the first lamb in the morning, and you shall offer the second lamb at dusk,

In v. 28:3 above, the word for you shall bring is plural.  In v. 28:4, the word for you shall offer, appearing twice, is singular.  As I have indicated before (Exod. 19:9, Exod. 35:2, and Numb. 15:4), I believe this means that the first command is directed to each individual of the congregation, and the second command is to the entire congregation as a single group.  In other words, each individual in the congregation is responsible for bringing the two lambs each day, but it is the responsibility of the entire congregation to offer one in the morning and one at dusk.  I will have more to say about the numbers of the pronouns and verbs in this chapter at the end of it.

Can you imagine the enormous task the priests faced to slaughter and prepare hundreds of thousands of animals in the morning and again as the sun went down?  When there were lots of priests later in the Promised Land, it might have been a reasonable task, but here in the wilderness it must have been another miracle occurring every day of the year.

וַעֲשִׂירִית הָאֵיפָה סֹלֶת לְמִנְחָה בְּלוּלָה בְּשֶׁמֶן כָּתִית רְבִיעִת הַהִין   28:5

Numb. 28:5  along with the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a meal offering mingled with the fourth part of a hin of beaten oil,

עֹלַת תָּמִיד הָעֲשֻׂיָה בְּהַר סִינַי לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה   28:6

Numb. 28:6  the continual fire offering being made according to Mount Sinai for a sweet scent, a fire offering to the Lord.’                                                                                  [Return to Ezek. 46:15]

All other translations of which I am aware have “that was made on Mount Sinai” for the three words, ynê:ysi rh;B. hyfu[]h, in this verse.  As there is no mention of a fire offering made on Mount Sinai to my knowledge, I interpreted this verse to mean that the Lord dictated the continual fire offering to Moses there.  In other words, according to the Lord’s commands to Moses on Mount Sinai, this twice daily offering is to be made.

וְנִסְכֹּו רְבִיעִת הַהִין לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד בַּקֹּדֶשׁ הַסֵּךְ נֶסֶךְ שֵׁכָר לַיהוָה   28:7

Numb. 28:7  ‘And for the first lamb, its drink offering shall be the fourth part of a hin; offer the drink offering of strong drink to the Lord in a holy place.’

וְאֵת הַכֶּבֶשׂ הַשֵּׁנִי תַּעֲשֶׂה בֵּין הָעַרְבָּיִם כְּמִנְחַת הַבֹּקֶר וּכְנִסְכֹּו תַּעֲשֶׂה אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה   28:8

Numb. 28:8  ‘And you shall offer the second lamb at dusk; you shall offer the same as the meal offering of the morning and as its drink offering, a fire offering of a scent sweet to the Lord,

וּבְיֹום הַשַּׁבָּת שְׁנֵי־כְבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה תְּמִיםִם וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים סֹלֶת מִנְחָה בְּלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן וְנִסְכֹּו   28:9

Numb. 28:9  and on the day of the Sabbath, two he-lamb yearlings without blemish and two tenths of fine flour, a meal offering, mingled with oil, and its drink offering,

עֹלַת שַׁבַּת בְּשַׁבַּתֹּו עַל־עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וְנִסְכָּהּ   28:10

Numb. 28:10   a burnt offering of Sabbath after Sabbath, beside the continual burnt offering and its drink offering.’                                                                                                   [Return to Ezek. 46:5]

וּבְרָאשֵׁי חָדְשֵׁיכֶם תַּקְרִיבוּ עֹלָה לַיהוָה פָּרִים בְּנֵי־בָקָר שְׁנַיִם וְאַיִל אֶחָד כְּבָשִׂים בְּנֵי־שָׁנָה שִׁבְעָה   28:11

תְּמִימִם

Numb. 28:11   ‘And on your new moons you shall bring a burnt offering to the Lord of two bullock calves and one ram, seven he-lamb yearlings without blemish,

וּשְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים סֹלֶת מִנְחָה בְּלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן לַפָּר הָאֶחָד וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים סֹלֶת מִנְחָה בְּלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן   28:12

לָאַיִל הָאֶחָד

Numb. 28:12   and a meal offering of three tenths of fine flour mingled with oil for each bullock, and a meal offering of two tenths of fine flour mingled with oil for the one ram,

וְעִשָּׂרֹן עִשָּׂרֹון סֹלֶת מִנְחָה בְּלוּלָה בַשֶּׁמֶן לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד עֹלָה רֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה   28:13

Numb. 28:13   and a meal offering of a tenth, a tenth of fine flour, mingled with oil for each lamb, a burnt offering of a sweet scent, a fire offering to the Lord.’

וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם חֲצִי הַהִין יִהְיֶה לַפָּר וּשְׁלִישִׁת הַהִין לָאַיִל וּרְבִיעִת הַהִין לַכֶּבֶשׂ יָיִן זֹאת עֹלַת חֹדֶשׁ   28:14

בְּחָדְשֹׁו לְחָדְשֵׁי הַשָּׁנָה

Numb. 28:14   ‘And their drink offerings shall be a half of a hin of wine for a bullock and a third of a hin for the ram and a fourth of a hin for a lamb.  This shall be the burnt offering of new moon after new moon for the months of the year.’                                             [Return to Ezek. 46:7]

וּשְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד לְחַטָּאת לַיהוָה עַל־עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד יֵעָשֶׂה וְנִסְכֹּו   28:15

Numb. 28:15   ‘And one male goat shall be offered for a sin offering to the Lord and its drink offering, beside the continual burnt offering.’

וּבַחֹדֶשׁ הָרִאשֹׁון בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יֹום לַחֹדֶשׁ פֶּסַח לַיהוָה   28:16

Numb. 28:16   ‘And the Passover to the Lord shall be in the first month on the month’s fourteenth day.’

וּבַחֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר יֹום לַחֹדֶשׁ הַזֶּה חָג שִׁבְעַת יָמִים מַצֹּות יֵאָכֵל   28:17

Numb. 28:17   ‘And on the fifteenth day of this month shall be a feast.  One shall eat unleavened bread seven days.’

בַּיֹּום הָרִאשֹׁון מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ   28:18

Numb. 28:18   ‘On the first day shall be a holy convocation; you shall not do any work of servitude,

וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם אִשֶּׁה עֹלָה לַיהוָה פָּרִים בְּנֵי־בָקָר שְׁנַיִם וְאַיִל אֶחָד וְשִׁבְעָה כְבָשִׂים בְּנֵי שָׁנָה תְּמִיםִם   28:19

יִהְיוּ לָכֶם

Numb. 28:19   and you shall bring a fire offering, a burnt offering to the Lord, of two bullock calves and one ram and seven he-lamb yearlings; they shall be without blemish to you.”

וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר וּשְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל תַּעֲשׂוּ   28:20

Numb. 28:20   ‘And you shall offer their meal offering of fine flour mingled with oil: Three tenths for a bullock, and two tenths for the ram.’

עִשָּׂרֹון עִשָּׂרֹון תַּעֲשֶׂה לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד לְשִׁבְעַת הַכְּבָשִׂים   28:21

Numb. 28:21   ‘You shall offer a tenth, a tenth part for each lamb, for the seven lambs,

וּשְׂעִיר חַטָּאת אֶחָד לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם   28:22

Numb. 28:22   and a sin offering of one goat, to make atonement for yourselves.’

מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַבֹּקֶר אֲשֶׁר לְעֹלַת הַתָּמִיד תַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת־אֵלֶּה   28:23

Numb. 28:23   ‘You shall offer these apart from the burnt offering of the morning, which is for the continual burnt offering.’

כָּאֵלֶּה תַּעֲשׂוּ לַיֹּום שִׁבְעַת יָמִים לֶחֶם אִשֵּׁה רֵיחַ־נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה עַל־עֹולַת הַתָּמִיד יֵעָשֶׂה וְנִסְכֹּו   28:24

Numb. 28:24   ‘Each day of the seven days you shall offer the food of a fire offering of a sweet scent to the Lord the same as these; it, and its drink offering, shall be offered, beside the continual burnt offering.’

וּבַיֹּום הַשְּׁבִיעִי מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ   28:25

Numb. 28:25   ‘And a holy convocation shall be for you on the seventh day; you shall not do any work of servitude.’

וּבְיום הַבִּכּוּרִים בְּהַקְרִיבְכֶם מִנְחָה חֲדָשָׁה לַיהוָה בְּשָׁבֻעֹתֵיכֶם מִקְרָא־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם כָּל־   28:26

מְלֶאכֶת עֲבֹדָה לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ

Numb. 28:26   “And on the day of the first fruits on your bringing a new meal offering to the Lord on your feast of weeks there shall be a holy convocation for you; you shall not do any work of servitude,

וְהִקְרַבְתֶּם עֹולָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה פָּרִים בְּנֵי־בָקָר שְׁנַיִם אַיִל אֶחָד שִׁבְעָה כְבָשִׂים בְּנֵי שָׁנָה   28:27

Numb. 28:27   and you shall bring a burnt offering for a sweet scent to the Lord of two bullock calves, one ram, seven he-lamb yearlings,

וּמִנְחָתָם סֹלֶת בְּלוּלָה בַשָּׁמֶן שְׁלֹשָׁה עֶשְׂרֹנִים לַפָּר הָאֶחָד שְׁנֵי עֶשְׂרֹנִים לָאַיִל הָאֶחָד   28:28

Numb. 28:28   and their meal offerings of fine flour mingled with oil, three tenths for each of the bullocks, two tenths for the one ram,

עִשָּׂרֹון עִשָּׂרֹון לַכֶּבֶשׂ הָאֶחָד לְשִׁבְעַת הַכְּבָשִׂים   28:29

Numb. 28:29   a tenth, a tenth part for each lamb, for the seven lambs.’

שְׂעִיר עִזִּים אֶחָד לְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם   28:30

Numb. 28:30   ‘One male goat, to make atonement for you,

מִלְּבַד עֹלַת הַתָּמִיד וּמִנְחָתֹו תַּעֲשׂוּ תְּמִיםִם יִהְיוּ־לָכֶם וְנִסְכֵּיהֶם   28:31

Numb. 28:31   you shall offer, beside the continual burnt offering and its meal offering – they shall be without blemish to you – and their drink offerings.’

There are five verses in this chapter in which no explicit to be verbs appear in the Hebrew (in vss. 28:7, 28:14, 28:16, 28:17, and 28:18).  They have to be assumed and inserted in the English.  And where I have inserted them, I have assumed them to be future tense verbs.  There are also numerous verses in which active second-person verbs (addressing the congregation) appear.  Most of these verbs are plural (in vss. 28:2, 28:3, 28:11, 28:18, 28:19, 28:20, 28:23, 28:24, 28:25, 28:26, 28:27, and 28:31), but there are four singular ones (in vss. 28:4, 28:7, 28:8, and 28:21).  I have already mentioned v. 28:4.  In v. 28:7 I believe the congregation is being told where to present the drink offering for drinking (in the sanctuary).  In v. 28:8, as in v. 28:4, I believe the congregation is being directed when to present the second offering – at dusk.  In v. 28:21 the congregation is being told to prepare the meal offering for the seven lambs of the holiday offering.  In all of the verses in which the verb is plural, it appears that the individual is being addressed about their responsibility to bring fire, meal, and drink offerings, as well as not to do servile work on the days of holy convocation.

Torah Commandments in this Chapter

382. You shall bring the prescribed offerings of the Sabbath, new

        moon, Passover, and Shavuoth.    V. 28:3 - 28:31

Note:  The continual daily offerings described in vss. 28:3 to 28:8 have already been commanded (see Exod. 29:38 to Exod. 29:41).

 

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