Leviticus 5

 

וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא וְשָׁמְעָה קֹול אָלָה וְהוּא עֵד אֹו רָאָה אֹו יָדָע אִם־לֹוא יַגִּיד וְנָשָׂא עֲוֹנֹו   5:1

Levi. 5:1    “’And if any one would sin and hear the sound of an oath and is a witness, whether he saw or knew, if he will not testify, then he shall bear his iniquity.’

אֹו נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע בְּכָל־דָּבָר טָמֵא אֹו בְנִבְלַת חַיָּה טְמֵאָה אֹו בְּנִבְלַת בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אֹו בְּנִבְלַת    5:2

שֶׁרֶץ טָמֵא וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא טָמֵא וְאָשֵׁם

Levi. 5:2    ‘Or any one who shall come in contact with any unclean thing, whether with a carcass of an unclean animal or with a carcass of an unclean beast or with a carcass of an unclean creeping thing, even it would be hidden from him, then he shall be unclean and guilty.’

אֹו כִי יִגַּע בְּטֻמְאַת אָדָם לְכֹל טֻמְאָתֹו אֲשֶׁר יִטְמָא בָּהּ וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם   5:3

Levi. 5:3    ‘Or when one shall come in contact with the uncleanness of a man, whatever his uncleanness by which he shall be unclean, and it would be hidden from him, when he knows, then he shall be guilty.’

אֹו נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תִשָּׁבַע לְבַטֵּא בִשְׂפָתַיִם לְהָרַע אֹו לְהֵיטִיב לְכֹל אֲשֶׁר יְבַטֵּא הָאָדָם בִּשְׁבֻעָה וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ   5:4

וְהוּא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם לְאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה

Levi. 5:4    ‘Or when one shall swear rashly with the lips, to do evil or to do good, for whatever he would speak clearly in an oath, and it is hidden from him, when he knows, then he shall be held guilty for one of them.’

This one I don’t understand.  How could someone speak loudly, rashly, or clearly and it be hidden from him?  I suppose we can imagine a situation in which someone does the above without realizing he did it.  I think he’d have to be pretty stupid or unaware, though. 

Oops!  Does what I just wrote, assuming that writing is equivalent to speaking, qualify as this kind of sin?  By questioning the meaning and logic of this verse, am I committing the sin?  No!  I’m off the hook.  Writing is not done with the lips, only talking aloud.

וְהָיָה כִי־יֶאְשַׁם לְאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה וְהִתְוַדָּה אֲשֶׁר חָטָא עָלֶיהָ   5:5

Levi. 5:5    ‘And it shall be, when he shall be guilty of any one of them, then he shall confess that he had sinned by it.’

I see a small problem with this verse if it applies to the individual in v. 5:2 as well as those in vss. 5:3 and 5:4.  The person described in v. 5:2 may not know of his uncleanness.  How is he to know he must confess?  I would expect that v. 5:2 also would have said, as the others do, “... when he knows ...,” but it doesn’t.  Is that another oversight, or does this verse not apply to the individual in v. 5:2?  If it’s not an oversight, I don’t see how it could.  In the Torah Commandments below I assume that it was an oversight, and it does apply.

וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמֹו לַיהוָה עַל חַטָּאתֹו אֲשֶׁר חָטָא נְקֵבָה מִן־הַצֹּאן כִּשְׂבָּה אֹו־שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים   5:6

לְחַטָּאת וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתֹו

Levi. 5:6    ‘Then he shall bring his sin offering to the Lord for his sin that he had committed, a female from the flock, a lamb or kid, for a sin offering, and the priest shall have mercy on him regarding his sin.’

אִם־לֹא תַגִּיַע יָדֹו דֵּי שֶׂה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמֹו אֲשֶׁר חָטָא שְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אֹו־שְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יֹונָה לַיהוָה אֶחָד    5:7

לְחַטָּאת וְאֶחָד לְעֹלָה

Levi. 5:7    ‘But if the acquisition of his hand should not be enough for a lamb, then he shall bring in his offering because of sin, two turtle doves or two young pigeons, to the Lord, one for a sin offering and one for a burnt offering.’

וְהֵבִיא אֹתָם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְהִקְרִיב אֶת־אֲשֶׁר לַחַטָּאת רִאשֹׁונָה וּמָלַק אֶת־רֹאשֹׁו מִמּוּל עָרְפֹּו וְלֹא   5:8

יַבְדִּיל

Levi. 5:8    ‘And he shall bring them to the priest and he shall present the one for a sin offering first, and he shall pinch off its head close to its back, but shall not divide it.’

וְהִזָּה מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת עַל־קִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהַנִּשְׁאָר בַּדָּם יִמָּצֵה אֶל־יְסֹוד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ חַטָּאת הוּא   5:9

Levi. 5:9    ‘And he shall sprinkle some of the blood of the sin offering on the side of the altar, and the rest of the blood he shall drain out at the base of the altar.  It is a sin offering.’

וְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִי יַעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתֹו אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לֹו   5:10

Levi. 5:10  ‘And with the second he shall make a burnt offering according to ordinance, and the priest shall have mercy on him regarding his sin that he had committed, and he shall grant him pardon.’

וְאִם־לֹא תַשִּׂיג יָדֹו לִשְׁתֵּי תֹרִים אֹו לִשְׁנֵי בְנֵי־יֹונָה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנֹו אֲשֶׁר חָטָא עֲשִׂירִת הָאֵפָה    5:11

 סֹלֶת לְחַטָּאת לֹא־יָשִׂים עָלֶיהָ שֶׁמֶן וְלֹא־יִתֵּן עָלֶיהָ לְבֹנָה כִּי חַטָּאת הִיא

Levi. 5:11  ‘And if the attainment of his hand should not be to two turtle doves or to two young pigeons, then he shall bring his offering because he had sinned, a tenth part of an ephah of fine flour, for a sin offering.  He shall not put oil on it and he shall not put frankincense on it, for it is a sin offering.’

Another observation, perhaps trivial, about the Hebrew in this verse:  You see the word put appearing twice in the second sentence of the verse.  The Hebrew word for each of these is different.  This may or may not be another example of the scribe’s avoidance of repetition. 

וֶהֱבִיאָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְקָמַץ הַכֹּהֵן מִמֶּנָּה מְלֹוא קֻמְצֹו אֶת־אַזְכָּרָתָה וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל אִשֵּׁי   5:12

יְהוָה חַטָּאת הִוא

Levi. 5:12  ‘And he shall bring it in to the priest and the priest shall take from it his full handful, a memorial, and make smoke on the altar on the fire offerings of the Lord.  It is a sin offering.’

וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל־חַטָּאתֹו אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא מֵאַחַת מֵאֵלֶּה וְנִסְלַח לֹו וְהָיְתָה לַכֹּהֵן כַּמִּנְחָה   5:13

Levi. 5:13  ‘And the priest shall have mercy on him for his sin that he had sinned, any one of them, and he shall grant him pardon, and it shall be for the priest as a meal offering.’”

וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר   5:14

Levi. 5:14  And the Lord spoke to Moses saying,

נֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תִמְעֹל מַעַל וְחָטְאָה בִּשְׁגָגָה מִקָּדְשֵׁי יְהוָה וְהֵבִיא אֶת־אֲשָׁמֹו לַיהוָה אַיִל תָּמִים   5:15

מִן־הַצֹּאן בְּעֶרְךְּךָ כֶּסֶף־שְׁקָלִים בְּשֶׁקֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ לְאָשָׁם

Levi. 5:15  “When any one shall commit a trespass and sin in error among the holy things of the Lord, then he shall bring his guilt offering in to the Lord, a ram without blemish from the flock, by your evaluation of shekels of silver, in shekels of the sanctuary, for a guilt offering.”

I imagine that the purpose of Moses’ evaluation was so that compensation could be had for the replacement of the holy thing that was now either missing or unclean.

וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר חָטָא מִן־הַקֹּדֶשׁ יְשַׁלֵּם וְאֶת־חֲמִישִׁתֹו יֹוסֵף עָלָיו וְנָתַן אֹתֹו לַכֹּהֵן וְהַכֹּהֵן יְכַפֵּר עָלָיו   5:16

בְּאֵיל הָאָשָׁם וְנִסְלַח לֹו

Levi. 5:16  “And that he sinned concerning the holy thing, he shall make restitution, and shall add a fifth of it on to it, and give it to the priest, and the priest shall have mercy on him because of the ram of the guilt offering and shall grant pardon to him.”

וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וְעָשְׂתָה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֹת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְלֹא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם וְנָשָׂא    5:17

עֲוֹנֹו

Levi. 5:17  “And if when any one shall sin and do any one of all the commandments of the Lord which must not be done, though he not know, yet he shall be held guilty, and he shall bear his iniquity.”

וְהֵבִיא אַיִל תָּמִים מִן־הַצֹּאן בְּעֶרְךְּךָ לְאָשָׁם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל שִׁגְגָתֹו אֲשֶׁר־שָׁגָג   5:18

וְהוּא לֹא־יָדַע וְנִסְלַח לֹו

Levi. 5:18  “And he shall bring a ram without blemish from the flock by your evaluation, for a guilt offering to the priest, and the priest shall have mercy on him concerning his error that he had committed though he did not know, and he shall grant pardon to him.”

As I understand vss. 5:17 and 5:18, everyone must bring a guilt offering to the Tabernacle (or later to the temple), because one cannot know whether he has violated one of the commandments.  Still he would be guilty and have to bring his offering.  In other words, everyone sins and is guilty.

אָשָׁם הוּא אָשֹׁם אָשַׁם לַיהוָה   5:19

Levi. 5:19  “It is a guilt offering.  He is certainly guilty toward the Lord.”

וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר   5:20

Levi. 5:20  And the Lord spoke to Moses saying,

נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וּמָעֲלָה מַעַל בַּיהוָה וְכִחֵשׁ בַּעֲמִיתֹו בְּפִקָּדֹון אֹו־בִתְשׂוּמֶת יָד אֹו בְגָזֵל אֹו עָשַׁק    5:21

אֶת־עֲמִיתֹו

Levi. 5:21  “When any one shall sin and commit a trespass by the Lord and shall deal falsely with his neighbor in something deposited, or in a pledge, or in robbery, or oppressing his neighbor,

אֹו־מָצָא אֲבֵדָה וְכִחֶשׁ בָּהּ וְנִשְׁבַּע עַל־שָׁקֶר עַל־אַחַת מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה הָאָדָם לַחֲטֹא בָהֵנָּה   5:22

Levi. 5:22  or finding something lost, and deal falsely regarding it and swear to a lie, by any one of all by which a person can do sinning,

וְהָיָה כִּי־יֶחֱטָא וְאָשֵׁם וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־הַגְּזֵלָה אֲשֶׁר גָּזָל אֹו אֶת־הָעֹשֶׁק אֲשֶׁר עָשָׁק אֹו אֶת־הַפִּקָּדֹון    5:23

אֲשֶׁר הָפְקַד אִתֹּו אֹו אֶת־הָאֲבֵדָה אֲשֶׁר מָצָא

Levi. 5:23  then it shall be when he shall sin and be guilty, that he shall return the thing that he had stolen, or the thing that he got by oppression, or the thing that was deposited with him, or the lost thing that he had found,

אֹו מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׁבַע עָלָיו לַשֶּׁקֶר וְשִׁלַּם אֹתֹו בְּרֹאשֹׁו וַחֲמִשִׁתָיו יֹסֵף עָלָיו לַאֲשֶׁר הוּא לֹו יִתְּנֶנּוּ   5:24

בְּיֹום אַשְׁמָתֹו

Levi. 5:24  or anything about which he shall have sworn falsely, and he shall restore it in its sum and a fifth of it added over it; he shall give it to whom it was his on the day of his trespass.”

וְאֶת־אֲשָׁמֹו יָבִיא לַיהוָה אַיִל תָּמִים מִן־הַצֹּאן בְּעֶרְךְּךָ לְאָשָׁם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן   5:25

Levi. 5:25  “And he shall bring his offering to the Lord, a ram without blemish from the flock, by your evaluation, for a guilt offering to the priest.”

וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְנִסְלַח לֹו עַל־אַחַת מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה לְאַשְׁמָה בָהּ   5:26

Levi. 5:26  “And the priest shall have mercy on him before the Lord and shall grant pardon to him regarding any one of all which he might have done to be guilty.”

Torah Commandments in this Chapter

122. One who does not testify as a witness shall bear his iniquity and must

        confess his sin.    V. 5:1

123. One who comes in contact with an unclean thing, knowingly 

        or not, shall be unclean and guilty.    V. 5:2

124. One who comes in contact with the uncleanness of a man, once

        he learns of it, shall be guilty.    V. 5:3

125. One who swears rashly or speaks an oath of which he is unaware,

        when he knows it, he shall be guilty and must.    V. 5:4

126. One who is guilty of any of these shall confess his sin.    V. 5:5

127. He shall bring a female lamb or kid for a sin offering.   V. 5:6

128. If he cannot afford these, he shall bring two turtle doves or two young

        pigeons, one for a sin offering, one for a burnt offering.   V. 5:7

129. The procedures for the turtle dove or pigeon offerings shall be followed.    V. 5:8 - 5:10

130. If he cannot afford these, he shall bring a sin offering of a tenth of an

        ephah of fine flour..    5:11

131. The procedures for the meal offering shall be followed.   V. 5:11 - 5:13

132. The procedures for one who sins among the holy things of the Lord

        shall be followed.    V. 5:15-5:16

133. The procedures for one who violates a negative commandment,

        knowingly or not, shall be followed.    V. 5:17-5:19

134. The procedures for one who deals and swears falsely regarding

        something deposited, or in pledge, in a robbery, or by oppression,

        shall be followed.    V. 5:21-5:26

 

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