Leviticus 4

 

וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר   4:1

Levi. 4:1    And the Lord spoke to Moses saying,

דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר נֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא בִשְׁגָגָה מִכֹּל מִצְוֹת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְעָשָׂה   4:2

מֵאַחַת מֵהֵנָּה

Levi. 4:2    “Speak to the children of Israel saying, ‘When any one might sin in error by virtue of a commandment of the Lord that must not be done, and will do one from them,

אִם הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ יֶחֱטָא לְאַשְׁמַת הָעָם וְהִקְרִיב עַל חַטָּאתֹו אֲשֶׁר חָטָא פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר תָּמִים לַיהוָה    4:3

לְחַטָּאת

Levi. 4:3    if the anointed priest should sin in an offense of the people, then he shall offer, because of his sin that he had committed, a young bullock without blemish to the Lord for a sin offering.’

It’s interesting that v. 4:2, in opposition to v. 4:3,  mentions only negative commandments that are violated.  What of positive Commandments that are not observed?  Perhaps the scribe and his peers saw the positive precepts as echoes of the corresponding negative precept.  Instead of “You shall ...,” maybe they understood “You shall not avoid ....”  But if that were the case, then why mention the kind of commandment at all, as they would all be negative to them?  Then this sin offering must be only for the negative precepts.

In v. 4:3, the anointed priest must be the high priest.  Later in v. 4:5, we are informed that he is to enter the tent of meeting and perform part of the procedure there pertaining to the veil of the sanctuary, so according to my interpretation he would have to be the high priest.

וְהֵבִיא אֶת־הַפָּר אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מֹועֵד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְסָמַךְ אֶת־יָדֹו עַל־רֹאשׁ הַפָּר וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַפָּר   4:4

לִפְנֵי יְהוָה

Levi. 4:4    ‘And he shall bring the bullock to the entrance of the tent of meeting before the Lord and he shall lay his hand on the head of the bullock and slaughter the bullock before the Lord.’

וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ מִדַּם הַפָּר וְהֵבִיא אֹתֹו אֶל־אֹהֶל מֹועֵד   4:5

Levi. 4:5    ‘And the anointed priest shall take some of the blood of the bullock and bring it in to the tent of meeting.’

וְטָבַל הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־אֶצְבָּעֹו בַּדָּם וְהִזָּה מִן־הַדָּם שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֶת־פְּנֵי פָּרֹכֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ   4:6

Levi. 4:6    ‘And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood and sprinkle, from the blood, the front of the veil of the sanctuary seven times before the Lord.’                             [Return to Levi. 8:11]

וְנָתַן הַכֹּהֵן מִן־הַדָּם עַל־קַרְנֹות מִזְבַּח קְטֹרֶת הַסַּמִּים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֹהֶל מֹועֵד וְאֵת כָּל־דַּם   4:7

הַפָּר יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסֹוד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מֹועֵד

Levi. 4:7    ‘And the priest shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar of sweet incense before the Lord that is in the tent of meeting, and he shall pour out all the blood of the bullock at the base of the altar of the burnt offering that is at the entrance of the tent of meeting.’

וְאֶת־כָּל־חֵלֶב פַּר הַחַטָּאת יָרִים מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־הַחֵלֶב הַמְכַסֶּה עַל־הַקֶּרֶב וְאֵת כָּל־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עַל־   4:8

הַקֶּרֶב

Levi. 4:8    ‘And he shall remove from it all the fat of the bullock of the sin offering, the fat covering over the innards and all the fat that is on the innards,

וְאֵת שְׁתֵּי הַכְּלָיֹת וְאֶת־הַחֵלֶב אֲשֶׁר עֲלֵיהֶן אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַכְּסָלִים וְאֶת־הַיֹּתֶרֶת עַל־הַכָּבֵד עַל־הַכְּלָיֹות    4:9

יְסִירֶנָּה

Levi. 4:9    and the two kidneys and the fat that is on them that is by the loins; and the protrusion over the liver by the kidneys.  He shall remove it

כַּאֲשֶׁר יוּרַם מִשֹּׁור זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִירָם הַכֹּהֵן עַל מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה   4:10

Levi. 4:10  as it must be removed from an ox, a sacrifice of the peace offerings, and the priest shall make them smoke on the altar of the burnt offering.’

וְאֶת־עֹור הַפָּר וְאֶת־כָּל־בְּשָׂרֹו עַל־רֹאשֹׁו וְעַל־כְּרָעָיו וְקִרְבֹּו וּפִרְשֹׁו   4:11

Levi. 4:11  ‘But the skin of the bullock and all its flesh over its head and on its legs, and its innards and its dung,

וְהֹוצִיא אֶת־כָּל־הַפָּר אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה אֶל־מָקֹום טָהֹור אֶל־שֶׁפֶךְ הַדֶּשֶׁן וְשָׂרַף אֹתֹו עַל־עֵצִים   4:12

בָּאֵשׁ עַל־שֶׁפֶךְ הַדֶּשֶׁן יִשָּׂרֵף

Levi. 4:12  even the whole bullock, he shall carry out to the outskirts of the camp, to the clean place, to the emptying place of the ashes, and burn it on logs in fire.  It shall be burned at the emptying place of the ashes.’

וְאִם כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁגּוּ וְנֶעְלַם דָּבָר מֵעֵינֵי הַקָּהָל וְעָשׂוּ אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֹת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־   4:13

תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְאָשֵׁמוּ

Levi. 4:13  ‘And if all the congregation of Israel should go astray, and the matter would be concealed from the eyes of the assembly, and they do any one from all the commandments of the Lord that shall not be done, then they shall be guilty.’

Once again only the negative precepts are mentioned.

וְנֹודְעָה הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר חָטְאוּ עָלֶיהָ וְהִקְרִיבוּ הַקָּהָל פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת וְהֵבִיאוּ אֹתֹו לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל   4:14

מֹועֵד

Levi. 4:14  ‘When the sin by which they sinned shall become known, then the assembly shall present a young bullock for a sin offering and bring it before the tent of meeting.’

וְסָמְכוּ זִקְנֵי הָעֵדָה אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה   4:15

Levi. 4:15  ‘And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands on the head of the bullock before the Lord, and one shall slaughter the bullock before the Lord.’

וְהֵבִיא הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ מִדַּם הַפָּר אֶל־אֹהֶל מֹועֵד   4:16

Levi. 4:16  ‘And the anointed priest shall bring some of the blood of the bullock in to the tent of meeting.’

וְטָבַל הַכֹּהֵן אֶצְבָּעֹו מִן־הַדָּם וְהִזָּה שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֵת פְּנֵי הַפָּרֹכֶת   4:17

Levi. 4:17  ‘And the priest shall dip his finger in some of the blood and sprinkle the front of the veil seven times before the Lord.’                                                                   [Return to Levi. 8:11]

וּמִן־הַדָּם יִתֵּן עַל־קַרְנֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֹהֶל מֹועֵד וְאֵת כָּל־הַדָּם יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסֹוד   4:18

מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מֹועֵד

Levi. 4:18  ‘And he shall put some of the blood on the horns of the altar that is before the Lord, that is in the tent of meeting.  And he shall pour out all the blood at the base of the altar of the burnt offering, which is at the entrance of the tent of meeting.’

וְאֵת כָּל־חֶלְבֹּו יָרִים מִמֶּנּוּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה   4:19

Levi. 4:19  ‘And he shall remove all its fat from it and make smoke on the altar.’

וְעָשָׂה לַפָּר כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לְפַר הַחַטָּאת כֵּן יַעֲשֶׂה־לֹּו וְכִפֶּר עֲלֵהֶם הַכֹּהֵן וְנִסְלַח לָהֶם   4:20

Levi. 4:20  ‘And he shall do to the bullock as he did to the bullock of the sin offering; so shall he do to it. And the priest shall have mercy on them and grant pardon to them.’

וְהֹוצִיא אֶת־הַפָּר אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְשָׂרַף אֹתֹו כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׂרַף אֵת הַפָּר הָרִאשֹׁון חַטַּאת הַקָּהָל הוּא  4:21

Levi. 4:21  ‘And he shall carry the bullock to the outskirts of the camp and burn it as he burned the first bullock.  It is the sin offering of the assembly.’

אֲשֶׁר נָשִׂיא יֶחֱטָא וְעָשָׂה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֹת יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵעָשֶׂינָה בִּשְׁגָגָה וְאָשֵׁם   4:22

Levi. 4:22  ‘When a ruler should sin in error and do any one of the commandments of the Lord, his God, that shall not be done, then he shall be held guilty.’

אֹו־הֹודַע אֵלָיו חַטָּאתֹו אֲשֶׁר חָטָא בָּהּ וְהֵבִיא אֶת־קָרְבָּנֹו שְׂעִיר עִזִּים זָכָר תָּמִים   4:23

Levi. 4:23  ‘If his sin by which he sinned is made known to him, then he shall bring his offering, a male kid without blemish.’

וְסָמַךְ יָדֹו עַל־רֹאשׁ הַשָּׂעִיר וְשָׁחַט אֹתֹו בִּמְקֹום אֲשֶׁר־יִשְׁחַט אֶת־הָעֹלָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה חַטָּאת הוּא   4:24

Levi. 4:24  ‘And he shall lay his hand on the head of the kid and slaughter it in the place where he must slaughter the burnt offering before the Lord.  It is a sin offering.’

Rather remarkable!  Even a ruler or a prince has to know the art of a butcher.  Also, again, in v. 4:22, only negative precepts are mentioned.

וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת בְּאֶצְבָּעֹו וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־דָּמֹו יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסֹוד   4:25

מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה

Levi. 4:25  ‘And the priest shall take from the blood of the sin offering on his finger and put on the horns of the altar of the burnt offering, and he shall pour out its blood at the base of the altar of the burnt offering.’

וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבֹּו יַקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה כְּחֵלֶב זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתֹו וְנִסְלַח לֹו   4:26

Levi. 4:26  ‘And he shall make all its fat smoke on the altar like the fat of the sacrifice of the peace offering, and the priest shall have mercy on him regarding his sin, and grant pardon to him.’

וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ אַחַת תֶּחֱטָא בִשְׁגָגָה מֵעַם הָאָרֶץ בַּעֲשֹׂתָהּ אַחַת מִמִּצְוֹת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵעָשֶׂינָה    4:27

וְאָשֵׁם

Levi. 4:27  ‘And if any one from the common people shall sin in error by doing any of the commandments of the Lord that must not be done, then he shall be held guilty.’

Once more only the negative precepts are mentioned!

אֹו הֹודַע אֵלָיו חַטָּאתֹו אֲשֶׁר חָטָא וְהֵבִיא קָרְבָּנֹו שְׂעִירַת עִזִּים תְּמִימָה נְקֵבָה עַל־חַטָּאתֹו אֲשֶׁר   4:28

חָטָא

Levi. 4:28  ‘If his sin that he had committed is made known to him, then he shall bring his offering, a female kid without blemish, for his sin that he committed.’

וְסָמַךְ אֶת־יָדֹו עַל רֹאשׁ הַחַטָּאת וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַחַטָּאת בִּמְקֹום הָעֹלָה   4:29

Levi. 4:29  ‘And he shall lay his hand on the head of the sin offering and slaughter the sin offering in the place of the burnt offering.’

וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדָּמָהּ בְּאֶצְבָּעֹו וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־כָּל־דָּמָהּ יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסֹוד הַמִּזְבֵּחַ   4:30

Levi. 4:30  ‘And the priest shall take from its blood on his finger and put on the horns of the altar of the burnt offering, and he shall pour out all its blood at the base of the altar.’

Notice that this verse is similar to v. 4:25, with several minor variations.  It seems as if the scribe intentionally avoided exact duplication where instructions or descriptions could easily have been identical.

וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּהּ יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר הוּסַר חֵלֶב מֵעַל זֶבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן הַמִּזְבֵּחָה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ   4:31

לַיהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְנִסְלַח לֹו

Levi. 4:31  ‘And he shall remove all its fat, as the fat from the sacrifice of the peace offerings is removed, and the priest shall make smoke on the altar for a sweet scent to the Lord, and the priest shall have mercy on him and grant pardon  to him.’

וְאִם־כֶּבֶשׂ יָבִיא קָרְבָּנֹו לְחַטָּאת נְקֵבָה תְמִימָה יְבִיאֶנָּה   4:32

Levi. 4:32  ‘And if it is a lamb, he should bring his offering, a female, for a sin offering; without blemish shall he bring it.’

וְסָמַךְ אֶת־יָדֹו עַל רֹאשׁ הַחַטָּאת וְשָׁחַט אֹתָהּ לְחַטָּאת בִּמְקֹום אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁחַט אֶת־הָעֹלָה   4:33

Levi. 4:33  ‘And he shall lay his hand on the head of the sin offering and slaughter it for a sin offering in the place where one must slaughter the burnt offering.’

וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן מִדַּם הַחַטָּאת בְּאֶצְבָּעֹו וְנָתַן עַל־קַרְנֹת מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־כָּל־דָּמָהּ יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסֹוד   4:34

הַמִּזְבֵּחַ

Levi. 4:34  ‘And the priest shall take from the blood of the sin offering on his finger and put on the horns of the altar of the burnt offering, and he shall pour out all its blood at the base of the altar.’

Here again we have a repetition of the instructions that appear in vss. 4:25 and 4:30, and each of the three verses has some minor differences.  Peculiar, but consistent!

וְאֶת־כָּל־חֶלְבָּה יָסִיר כַּאֲשֶׁר יוּסַר חֵלֶב־הַכֶּשֶׂב מִזֶּבַח הַשְּׁלָמִים וְהִקְטִיר הַכֹּהֵן אֹתָם הַמִּזְבֵּחָה עַל   4:35

אִשֵּׁי יְהוָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן עַל־חַטָּאתֹו אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לֹו

Levi. 4:35  ‘And he shall remove all its fat, as the fat of the lamb must be removed from the sacrifice of the peace offerings, and the priest shall make them smoke on the altar on the fire offerings of the Lord, and shall have mercy on him regarding his sin that he committed and grant pardon to him.’”

Torah Commandments in this Chapter

121. The procedures for a sin offering shall be followed.    V. 4:2 - 4:35

 

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