Leviticus 25

וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה בְּהַר סִינַי לֵאמֹר   25:1

Levi. 25:1  And the Lord spoke to Moses on Mount Sinai saying,

Well, it looks like we ‘re back at Mount Sinai for this chapter.  Perhaps the Israelites hadn’t left yet.  The intervening chapters (some in Exodus) from crossing the Reed Sea to arriving at God’s mount and up to this point must signify interjections of events virtually independent of their time relationship with this chapter.  So it would seem that we can’t be sure of the order in which events occurred and these commandments were given to Moses relative to those in other chapters.  Alternatively, this chapter could be a flashback, but I’d say that isn’t likely.

דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם כִּי תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לָכֶם וְשָׁבְתָה הָאָרֶץ שַׁבָּת   25:2

לַיהוָה

Levi. 25:2  “Speak to the children of Israel and you[s] shall say to them, ‘When you[p] shall go in to the land that I will be giving to you[p], then the land shall observe a Sabbath to the Lord.’

From the phrase “When you shall go in to the land ...” we should understand that the rest of this chapter addresses future generations only, those that will dwell in the land.  Of those present at Mount Sinai, only Joshua and Caleb would enter the land.

In addition to that recognition, I need to acknowledge the apparently odd variations in the number of the second-person pronouns in this chapter.  Looked at superficially, the pronouns seem to be haphazardly plural and singular.  However, on closer examination, a clear pattern emerges.  For this reason, I have identified the singular pronouns (only those referring to the people) by attaching [s] and the plural pronouns by [p] as I did in Leviticus 19.  After the next verse, I will leave it to you to make sense of them.

In this verse, the last two second-person pronouns refer to the children of Israel.  They are both plural.  However, the four second-person pronouns in the next verse are all singular (as well as those in the next eight verses following it).  I’m not sure what to make of this transformation, especially because the nouns field and vineyard appear in v. 25:3 in singular form.  If my theory about second-person pronouns is consistent, and the Lord were addressing the entire congregation, these nouns would have to be plural.  It might seem as if The Lord has switched from dictating to Moses to speaking directly to each individual Israelite.  But that is hard to believe; according to v. 25:1, Moses is still alone with the Lord on Mount Sinai.  However, if the Lord is having Moses write all this down -- which is fairly certain, it seems possible that He would make this transformation in order to relate more intimately to each member of future generations who would later read these commandments or have them read to him.  I leave the rest of the examination and understanding to you.

שֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים תִּזְרַע שָׂדֶךָ וְשֵׁשׁ שָׁנִים תִּזְמֹר כַּרְמֶךָ וְאָסַפְתָּ אֶת־תְּבוּאָתָהּ   25:3

Levi. 25:3  ‘Six years you[s] shall sow your[s] field and six years you[s] shall prune your[s] vineyard and gather in its produce.’

וּבַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת שַׁבַּת שַׁבָּתֹון יִהְיֶה לָאָרֶץ שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה שָׂדְךָ לֹא תִזְרָע וְכַרְמְךָ לֹא תִזְמֹר   25:4

Levi. 25:4  ‘But in the seventh year there shall be a Sabbath of complete rest for the land, a Sabbath to the Lord.  You[s] shall not sow your[s] field and you[s] shall not prune your[s] vineyard.’

אֵת סְפִיחַ קְצִירְךָ לֹא תִקְצֹור וְאֶת־עִנְּבֵי נְזִירֶךָ לֹא תִבְצֹר שְׁנַת שַׁבָּתֹון יִהְיֶה לָאָרֶץ   25:5

Levi. 25:5  ‘You[s] shall not reap what grows by itself of your[s] harvest, and you[s] shall not gather the grapes of your[s] undressed vine.  It shall be a year of complete rest for the land.’

The term reap in the phrase “You shall not reap what grows by itself ....” must have a specific definition in this case  referring to a formal harvest, because the phrase seems to be contradicted by the next verse.  In other words, instead of harvesting (in the spring and autumn) the various entire crops, the wild growth is to be picked as it ripens, perhaps stored, and eaten throughout the year.

וְהָיְתָה שַׁבַּת הָאָרֶץ לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה לְךָ וּלְעַבְדְּךָ וְלַאֲמָתֶךָ וְלִשְׂכִירְךָ וּלְתֹושָׁבְךָ הַגָּרִים עִמָּךְ   25:6

Levi. 25:6  ‘Then the Sabbath produce of the land shall be for food for you[p], for you[s] and for your[s] servant and for your[s] maid and for your[s] hired hand and the strangers sojourning with you[s],

וְלִבְהֶמְתְּךָ וְלַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצֶךָ תִּהְיֶה כָל־תְּבוּאָתָהּ לֶאֱכֹל   25:7

Levi. 25:7  and for your[s] cattle and for the animal that will be on your[s] land; all its increase shall be for food.’

I gather from vss. 25:5, 6, and 7 that during the Sabbath year the wild uncultivated growth is the food of the people and their animals.  Thus it’s not a Sabbath for the people or animals, only for the land, which is not to be cultivated, but its natural growth is to be for food.

וְסָפַרְתָּ לְךָ שֶׁבַע שַׁבְּתֹת שָׁנִים שֶׁבַע שָׁנִים שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְהָיוּ לְךָ יְמֵי שֶׁבַע שַׁבְּתֹת הַשָּׁנִים תֵּשַׁע   25:8

וְאַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה

Levi. 25:8  ‘And you[s] shall count for yourself[s] seven Sabbaths of years, seven years seven times. So there shall be the time of seven Sabbaths of years for you[s], forty-nine years.’

Two points about this verse, one an observation, the other a question:     more >>

וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ שֹׁופַר תְּרוּעָה בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִעִי בֶּעָשֹׂור לַחֹדֶשׁ בְּיֹום הַכִּפֻּרִים תַּעֲבִירוּ שֹׁופָר בְּכָל־אַרְצְכֶם   25:9

Levi. 25:9  ‘Then you[s] shall make a shofar of alarm pass over in the seventh month on the month’s tenth day; on the day of atonement you[p] shall make a shofar pass over throughout all your[p] land.’

Does it seem to you that the year being addressed (see next verse) should start in the seventh month of the forty-ninth year and not in the first month of the fiftieth year?     More >>

וְקִדַּשְׁתֶּם אֵת שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּקְרָאתֶם דְּרֹור בָּאָרֶץ לְכָל־יֹשְׁבֶיהָ יֹובֵל הִוא תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם   25:10

וְשַׁבְתֶּם אִישׁ אֶל־אֲחֻזָּתֹו וְאִישׁ אֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתֹּו תָּשֻׁבוּ

Levi. 25:10   ‘And you[p] shall hallow the year, the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty in the land to all its inhabitants.  It shall be a Jubilee year for you[p], so you shall restore everyone to his possessions, and you[p] shall restore everyone to his family.’             [Return to v.25:8 notes]

 יֹובֵל הִוא שְׁנַת הַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם לֹא תִזְרָעוּ וְלֹא תִקְצְרוּ אֶת־סְפִיחֶיהָ וְלֹא תִבְצְרוּ   25:11

אֶת־נְזִרֶיהָ

Levi. 25:11   ‘It shall be a Jubilee year; it shall be the year of the fiftieth year for you[p].  You[p] shall not sow, and you[p] shall not reap the wild growth, and you[p] shall not trim its undressed vines.’

See my remarks relating to v. 25:5 for how I interpret the word reap in this verse.  As you can see in v. 25:12 below. , any other interpretation of the word would be in contradiction to that verse

כִּי יֹובֵל הִוא קֹדֶשׁ תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם מִן־הַשָּׂדֶה תֹּאכְלוּ אֶת־תְּבוּאָתָהּ   25:12

Levi. 25:12   ‘For it is a Jubilee year.  It shall be holy to you[p].  From the field you[p] shall eat its increase.’

בִּשְׁנַת הַיֹּובֵל הַזֹּאת תָּשֻׁבוּ אִישׁ אֶל־אֲחֻזָּתֹו   25:13

Levi. Levi. 25:13   ‘In this Jubilee year you[p] shall restore everyone to his possession.’

וְכִי־תִמְכְּרוּ מִמְכָּר לַעֲמִיתֶךָ אֹו קָנֹה מִיַּד עֲמִיתֶךָ אַל־תֹּונוּ אִישׁ אֶת־אָחִיו   25:14

Levi. 25:14   ‘And when you[p] would sell something to your[p] neighbor or buy from the hand of your[p] neighbor, you[p] shall not oppress one another.’

בְּמִסְפַּר שָׁנִים אַחַר הַיֹּובֵל תִּקְנֶה מֵאֵת עֲמִיתֶךָ בְּמִסְפַּר שְׁנֵי־תְבוּאֹת יִמְכָּר־לָךְ   25:15

Levi. 25:15   ‘You[s] shall buy from your neighbor according to the number of years after the Jubilee, he shall sell to you[s] according to the number of years of yield.’

In other words, If one buys a piece of his neighbor’s farm, he pays less in each elapsed year after the Jubilee.  Correspondingly, if one sells a piece of his farm to his neighbor, the more years of produce before the next Jubilee, the more he may ask to make the sale.  Thus the value of a possession (land) diminishes with each year following a Jubilee year.

לְפִי רֹב הַשָּׁנִים תַּרְבֶּה מִקְנָתֹו וּלְפִי מְעֹט הַשָּׁנִים תַּמְעִיט מִקְנָתֹו כִּי מִסְפַּר תְּבוּאֹת הוּא מֹכֵר לָךְ   25:16

Levi. 25:16   ‘For the amount of produce he will be selling to you[s], you[s] shall increase its price according to the abundance of the years, and you[s] shall decrease its price according to the few in number of the years.’

At first reading, this verse is difficult to interpret properly.  If it refers to the produce that a farmer sells, the seller of the produce would ask more if the amount of produce is more, and less if the amount of produce is less.  I doubt that this is the meaning of this verse.  It seems too self-evident that the more of a product you sell, the more you should ask.  So the produce mentioned here must refer to the future yield that a purchased farm can potentially produce.  This latter interpretation directly connects this verse to the previous one.

וְלֹא תֹונוּ אִישׁ אֶת־עֲמִיתֹו וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם   25:17

Levi. 25:17   ‘Then you[p] will not oppress one another, but you[s] will have respect because of your[p] God,’ “for I am the Lord, your[p] God.”

In the second phrase of this verse part of it seems to be universally translated as “… you shall fear your God, ….”  I find this translation to be in error.  The word for your God is not the direct object of the verb you shall fear.  The only probable translation of this phrase is the one I have above.  It speaks more to the point of the preceding verses.  We are to have respect for one another in our business dealings because of, and in deference to, our God, Whom we love.  Notice the change in second-person pronoun number in the middle of the verse.  I believe this is intentional and supports my theory about second-person pronouns.  As a people, we are not to oppress one another, while respect is an individual behavior and responsibility.

Another observation:  The next two verses appear to provide a transition in subject matter.  Starting with  v. 25:20, the Sabbath years between Jubilees are addressed again while also sometimes referencing the Jubilee year.

וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי וְאֶת־מִשְׁפָּטַי תִּשְׁמְרוּ וַעֲשִׂיתֶם אֹתָם וִישַׁבְתֶּם עַל־הָאָרֶץ לָבֶטַח   25:18

Levi. 25:18   “So you[p] shall maintain My statutes, and you[p] shall heed My ordinances and do them; then you[p] shall dwell on the land safely.”

וְנָתְנָה הָאָרֶץ פִּרְיָהּ וַאֲכַלְתֶּם לָשֹׂבַע וִישַׁבְתֶּם לָבֶטַח עָלֶיהָ   25:19

Levi. 25:19   “And the land shall yield its fruit and you[p] shall eat to satisfaction and you[p] shall dwell safely on it.”

וְכִי תֹאמְרוּ מַה־נֹּאכַל בַּשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁבִיעִת הֵן לֹא נִזְרָע וְלֹא נֶאֱסֹף אֶת־תְּבוּאָתֵנוּ   25:20

Levi. 25:20   “Then if you[p] might say, ‘What shall we eat in the seventh year if we may not sow and we may not gather in our crops,’

וְצִוִּיתִי אֶת־בִּרְכָתִי לָכֶם בַּשָּׁנָה הַשִּׁשִּׁית וְעָשָׂת אֶת־הַתְּבוּאָה לִשְׁלֹשׁ הַשָּׁנִים   25:21

Levi. 25:21   then I will appoint My blessing to you[p] in the sixth year and it will yield produce for the three years.”

These verses, 25:18 to 25:21, echo the Lord’s promise again:  Heed and revere Me and I will take care of you (see Exod. 15:26).  The three years the Lord is now referring to are the sixth year preceding the Sabbath year, the Sabbath year itself, and the following (the eighth) year. 

וּזְרַעְתֶּם אֵת הַשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁמִינִת וַאֲכַלְתֶּם מִן־הַתְּבוּאָה יָשָׁן עַד הַשָּׁנָה הַתְּשִׁיעִת עַד־בֹּוא תְּבוּאָתָהּ   25:22

תֹּאכְלוּ יָשָׁן

Levi. 25:22   “And you[p] shall sow the eighth year and eat from the produce stored until the ninth year; until the crop comes in, you[p] shall eat the store.”

This verse contains some very interesting, curious, and enlightening information.  For one point, in the sixth and eighth years, the fields are plowed and planted in the fall (which should be the middle of the year), and the crop may be eaten when it ripens in the spring -- which in the latter case is the beginning of the ninth year.  In the sixth year, enough produce will be harvested so an entire extra year of grain and fruits can be stored for the eighth year.  In the seventh year, the wild growth of that year is for food.

As I see this interpretation, the year must be as the Lord defined it in Exod. 12:2.  The “calendar” year should extend from the beginning of Nissan to the end of Adar, not from Tishrei to Elul.  If you skipped over it, see the discussion relating to v. 25:9.

וְהָאָרֶץ לֹא תִמָּכֵר לִצְמִתֻת כִּי־לִי הָאָרֶץ כִּי־גֵרִים וְתֹושָׁבִים אַתֶּם עִמָּדִי   25:23

Levi. 25:23   “Now the land shall never be sold in perpetuity, because the land is Mine, for you[p] are strangers and settlers with Me.”                                             [Return to Exod. 22:23]

This is another significant verse with far-reaching consequences.  We are not the owners of the land of Israel (nor, for that matter, of anything in our possession).  We are occupying the land with the grace of God and we must return it to its original settler in the year of the Jubilee.  While the Lord has chosen us for His people, we are still only boarders with Him.  Where do we get the arrogance that some of us display?  The source of any pride we may feel can only be that we are the Lord’s chosen servants, fulfilling His “desire.”

One more comment about this verse that may or may not be significant:  There are twelve Hebrew words in the verse, and between the ninth (~yrIgE) and tenth (~ybiv'Atw>) words there is an entire blank pane in the Torah scroll.  The two words are strangers and and settlers.  Thinking about this, I envision twelve words and twelve tribes.  Ten tribes are lost.  Thinking about it some more, I imagine that there are actually three “tribes” or groups left that can be semi-identified:  The Cohanim, the Levites, and the rest of us.  The last three words are separated out of the twelve.  Isn’t that peculiar!

וּבְכֹל אֶרֶץ אֲחֻזַּתְכֶם גְּאֻלָּה תִּתְּנוּ לָאָרֶץ   25:24

Levi. 25:24   “So in all the land of your[p] possession, you[p] shall grant redemption for the land.”

כִּי־יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ וּמָכַר מֵאֲחֻזָּתֹו וּבָא גֹאֲלֹו הַקָּרֹב אֵלָיו וְגָאַל אֵת מִמְכַּר אָחִיו   25:25

Levi. 25:25   “If your[s] relative were to become poor and sell some of his possession, then his redeemer closest to him shall come and redeem what his brother had sold.”

וְאִישׁ כִּי לֹא יִהְיֶה־לֹּו גֹּאֵל וְהִשִּׂיגָה יָדֹו וּמָצָא כְּדֵי גְאֻלָּתֹו   25:26

Levi. 25:26   “And a man, if there might be no redeemer for him, and he might attain his portion and find sufficient means for his redemption,

וְחִשַּׁב אֶת־שְׁנֵי מִמְכָּרֹו וְהֵשִׁיב אֶת־הָעֹדֵף לָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר מָכַר־לֹו וְשָׁב לַאֲחֻזָּתֹו   25:27

Levi. 25:27   then he shall count the years since his sale and return the surplus to the man to whom he sold, and it shall be restored to his possession.”

If one were to attain enough for the redemption of his possession, the redemption price would be diminished for each year the property was in use by the buyer.

וְאִם לֹא־מָצְאָה יָדֹו דֵּי הָשִׁיב לֹו וְהָיָה מִמְכָּרֹו בְּיַד הַקֹּנֶה אֹתֹו עַד שְׁנַת הַיֹּובֵל וְיָצָא בַּיֹּבֵל וְשָׁב    25:28

לַאֲחֻזָּתֹו

Levi. 25:28   “But if sufficient means to restore to himself is not found, then his sale shall remain in the hand of the one who had bought it until the year of Jubilee; then it shall come out in the Jubilee and be restored to his possession.”

וְאִישׁ כִּי־יִמְכֹּר בֵּית־מֹושַׁב עִיר חֹומָה וְהָיְתָה גְּאֻלָּתֹו עַד־תֹּם שְׁנַת מִמְכָּרֹו יָמִים תִּהְיֶה גְאֻלָּתֹו   25:29

Levi. 25:29   “And when a man might sell a dwelling place of a walled city, then it shall be redeemable by him until the completion of a year from its sale, the time it shall be redeemable by him.”

וְאִם לֹא־יִגָּאֵל עַד־מְלֹאת לֹו שָׁנָה תְמִימָה וְקָם הַבַּיִת אֲשֶׁר־בָּעִיר אֲשֶׁר־(לֹא) [לֹו] חֹמָה לַצְּמִיתֻת   25:30

לַקֹּנֶה אֹתֹו לְדֹרֹתָיו לֹא יֵצֵא בַּיֹּבֵל

Levi. 25:30   “And if it cannot be redeemed up to the completion of a full year for him, then the house that is in the walled city which is his shall be confirmed forever to the one who bought it, for his generations; it shall not come out in the Jubilee.”

There is an apparent error in this verse, as indicated by the word in parentheses.  The presumably correct word is in the brackets. The sense of the verse would change dramatically if the word in parentheses were correct, as it transforms the positive verb shall be confirmed to shall not be confirmed.

In another vein of thought, a walled city would not contain any land allocated by lot to a tribe.  So there is no original possessor to redeem a house in that city.  Any house sale is of indefinite duration.

וּבָתֵּי הַחֲצֵרִים אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לָהֶם חֹמָה סָבִיב עַל־שְׂדֵה הָאָרֶץ יֵחָשֵׁב גְּאֻלָּה תִּהְיֶה־לֹּו וּבַיֹּבֵל יֵצֵא   25:31

Levi. 25:31   “But of the houses of villages for which there is no wall all around, any shall be considered on a field of the land; it shall be redeemable to him, and in the Jubilee year it shall come out.”

This verse sounds like the Lord is telling us that some tribe members would be allocated no land, only houses in unwalled cities.  As such, they would be merchants and service people, not farmers. Or does this mean that some tribe members didn’t live on their fields, but in nearby villages?  If the latter is the true interpretation, then the houses can be assumed to be rented.  So too the land that is considered to be purchased.  When one purchases a field, he is really just renting it until the Jubilee year.

וְעָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם בָּתֵּי עָרֵי אֲחֻזָּתָם גְּאֻלַּת עֹולָם תִּהְיֶה לַלְוִיִּם   25:32

Levi. 25:32   “But of the cities of the Levites, the houses of the cities of their possession shall always be redeemable for the Levites.”

וַאֲשֶׁר יִגְאַל מִן־הַלְוִיִּם וְיָצָא מִמְכַּר־בַּיִת וְעִיר אֲחֻזָּתֹו בַּיֹּבֵל כִּי בָתֵּי עָרֵי הַלְוִיִּם הִוא אֲחֻזָּתָם   25:33

בְּתֹוךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל

Levi. 25:33   “And whoever shall purchase from the Levites, then he shall let the sold house come out, and the city of its property, in the Jubilee; for the houses of the cities of the Levites, it is their possession among the children of Israel.”

וּשְׂדֵה מִגְרַשׁ עָרֵיהֶם לֹא יִמָּכֵר כִּי־אֲחֻזַּת עֹולָם הוּא לָהֶם   25:34

Levi. 25:34   “And the open country of their cities may not be sold; for that is their everlasting possession.”

וְכִי־יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ וּמָטָה יָדֹו עִמָּךְ וְהֶחֱזַקְתָּ בֹּו גֵּר וְתֹושָׁב וָחַי עִמָּךְ   25:35

Levi. 25:35   “And if your[s] relative might become poor and his means fail in spite of you[s], then you[s] shall prevail upon him, a stranger or a settler, and he shall live with you[s].”

I understand this verse to mean that if your relative intends to sell himself, you shall prevail on the buyer, whether he is a stranger or an Israelite, and bring the relative to live with you.

אַל־תִּקַּח מֵאִתֹּו נֶשֶׁךְ וְתַרְבִּית וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ וְחֵי אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ   25:36

Levi. 25:36   “You[s] shall take no interest or profit from him, but have respect because of your[s] God, that your[s] relative may live with you[s].”

See my remarks relating to v. 25:17.  Take note, though, of the change in number of most of the second-person pronouns from that verse to this one.  In the former verse they are plural except for one; in this verse they are all singular.

אֶת־כַּסְפְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לֹו בְּנֶשֶׁךְ וּבְמַרְבִּית לֹא־תִתֵּן אָכְלֶךָ   25:37

Levi. 25:37   “You[s] shall not lend your[s] money to him with interest, and you[s] shall not employ your[s] food for profit.”

אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־הֹוצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לָתֵת לָכֶם אֶת־אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן לִהְיֹות   25:38

לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים

Levi. 25:38   “I am the Lord, your[p] God, Who brought you[p] out of the land of Egypt to give the land of Caanan to you[p], to be God to you[p].”

וְכִי־יָמוּךְ אָחִיךָ עִמָּךְ וְנִמְכַּר־לָךְ לֹא־תַעֲבֹד בֹּו עֲבֹדַת עָבֶד   25:39

Levi. 25:39   “And if your[s] relative with you[s] might become poor and sell himself to you[s], you[s] shall not impose the service of a bondservant on him.”

כְּשָׂכִיר כְּתֹושָׁב יִהְיֶה עִמָּךְ עַד־שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל יַעֲבֹד עִמָּךְ   25:40

Levi. 25:40   “He shall be like a hired hand, like a sojourner, with you[s]; he shall serve with you[s] until the year of the Jubilee.”

וְיָצָא מֵעִמָּךְ הוּא וּבָנָיו עִמֹּו וְשָׁב אֶל־מִשְׁפַּחְתֹּו וְאֶל־אֲחֻזַּת אֲבֹתָיו יָשׁוּב   25:41

Levi. 25:41   “Then he shall come out[s] from you, he and his children with him, and he shall return to his family, and he shall be restored to the possession of his fathers.”

כִּי־עֲבָדַי הֵם אֲשֶׁר־הֹוצֵאתִי אֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם לֹא יִמָּכְרוּ מִמְכֶּרֶת עָבֶד   25:42

Levi. 25:42   “For they whom I brought out of the land of Egypt are My servants.  They shall not be sold as a bondservant.”

לֹא־תִרְדֶּה בֹו בְּפָרֶךְ וְיָרֵאתָ מֵאֱלֹהֶיךָ   25:43

Levi. 25:43   “You[s] shall not rule over him with cruelty, but you[s] shall have respect because of your[s] God.”

See my remarks relating to vss. 25:17 and 25:36.

וְעַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ אֲשֶׁר יִהְיוּ־לָךְ מֵאֵת הַגֹּויִם אֲשֶׁר סְבִיבֹתֵיכֶם מֵהֶם תִּקְנוּ עֶבֶד וְאָמָה   25:44

Levi. 25:44   “And your[s] bondmen and your[s] bondmaids who might be yours[s]:  From the nations that are around you[p], from them shall you[p] buy a bondman or bondmaid.”

וְגַם מִבְּנֵי הַתֹּושָׁבִים הַגָּרִים עִםָּכֶם מֵהֶם תִּקְנוּ וּמִמִּשְׁפַּחְתָּם אֲשֶׁר עִםָּכֶם אֲשֶׁר הֹולִידוּ בְּאַרְצְכֶם   25:45

וְהָיוּ לָכֶם לַאֲחֻזָּה

Levi. 25:45   “And also from the children of the foreigners sojourning with you[p], from them may you[p] buy, and from their families that are with you[p] which were born in your[p] land, and they may be yours[p] for a possession.”

וְהִתְנַחֲלְתֶּם אֹתָם לִבְנֵיכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם לָרֶשֶׁת אֲחֻזָּה לְעֹלָם בָּהֶם תַּעֲבֹדוּ וּבְאַחֵיכֶם בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל    25:46

אִישׁ בְּאָחִיו לֹא־תִרְדֶּה בֹו בְּפָרֶךְ

Levi. 25:46   “And you[p] may make them an inheritance for your[p] children after you[p] to hold, a possession for all time, with them may you[p] take bondmen.  But with your[p] relatives, the children of Israel, one with another you[s] shall not rule over him with cruelty.”

וְכִי תַשִּׂיג יַד גֵּר וְתֹושָׁב עִמָּךְ וּמָךְ אָחִיךָ עִמֹּו וְנִמְכַּר לְגֵר תֹּושָׁב עִמָּךְ אֹו לְעֵקֶר מִשְׁפַּחַת גֵּר   25:47

Levi. 25:47   “And when the hand of a stranger might grow rich while dwelling with you[s], and should your[s] relative become poor beside him and sell himself to the stranger sojourning with you[s], or to a member of the family of a stranger,

אַחֲרֵי נִמְכַּר גְּאֻלָּה תִּהְיֶה־לֹּו אֶחָד מֵאֶחָיו יִגְאָלֶנּוּ   25:48

Levi. 25:48   after he is sold, redemption shall be his; one from his brothers shall redeem him.”

אֹו־דֹדֹו אֹו בֶן־דֹּדֹו יִגְאָלֶנּוּ אֹו־מִשְּׁאֵר בְּשָׂרֹו מִמִּשְׁפַּחְתֹּו יִגְאָלֶנּוּ אֹו־הִשִּׂיגָה יָדֹו וְנִגְאָל   25:49

Levi. 25:49   “Or his uncle or a son of his uncle or any kinsman of his flesh from his family shall redeem him, or if his means increase, then he may redeem himself.”

וְחִשַּׁב עִם־קֹנֵהוּ מִשְּׁנַת הִמָּכְרֹו לֹו עַד שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְהָיָה כֶּסֶף מִמְכָּרֹו בְּמִסְפַּר שָׁנִים כִּימֵי שָׂכִיר   25:50

יִהְיֶה עִמֹּו

Levi. 25:50   “Then he shall reckon with his buyer from the year of his sale to him until the year of the Jubilee, and the price of his sale shall be according to the number of years, as if the time a hired hand might have been with him.”

אִם־עֹוד רַבֹּות בַּשָּׁנִים לְפִיהֶן יָשִׁיב גְּאֻלָּתֹו מִכֶּסֶף מִקְנָתֹו   25:51

Levi. 25:51   “If there are still many in years, according to them he shall give in payment of his redemption from the money of his sale.”

וְאִם־מְעַט נִשְׁאַר בַּשָּׁנִים עַד־שְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל וְחִשַּׁב־לֹו כְּפִי שָׁנָיו יָשִׁיב אֶת־גְּאֻלָּתֹו   25:52

Levi. 25:52   “And if little is left in years until the year of the Jubilee, then he shall account to him; according to his years shall he turn back his redemption.”

כִּשְׂכִיר שָׁנָה בְּשָׁנָה יִהְיֶה עִמֹּו לֹא־יִרְדֶּנּוּ בְּפֶרֶךְ לְעֵינֶיךָ   25:53

Levi. 25:53   “He shall be with him like a hired servant year by year; he shall not rule him with rigor in your eyes.”

וְאִם־לֹא יִגָּאֵל בְּאֵלֶּה וְיָצָא בִּשְׁנַת הַיֹּבֵל הוּא וּבָנָיו עִמֹּו   25:54

Levi. 25:54   “And if he is not redeemed in any of these ways, then he shall be released in the year of the Jubilee, he and his children with him.”

כִּי־לִי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עֲבָדִים עֲבָדַי הֵם אֲשֶׁר־הֹוצֵאתִי אֹותָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם   25:55

Levi. 25:55   “For the children of Israel are servants for Me.  They are My servants whom I brought out of the land of Egypt.”

                                                             ”I am the Lord, your[p] God.”

Torah Commandments in this Chapter

307. In Israel you shall sow your land and prune your vineyards and reap your

        harvest for six years, and in the seventh year you shall observe a Sabbath of

        the land.    V. 25:3, 25:4

308. In the seventh year you shall not sow your field or prune your vineyard.    V. 25:4

309. You shall not reap what grows by itself of your harvest.    V. 25:5

310. You shall not gather the grapes of your undressed vine.    V. 25:5

311. What grows by itself shall be your food in the seventh year.    V. 25:6, 25:7

312. On the tenth day of the seventh month of the forty-ninth year you shall signal

        a jubilee year to begin at the start of the fiftieth year.    V. 25:8

313. On that day you shall sound a shofar throughout the land.    V. 25:8

314. In the fiftieth year every possession shall be restored to its original owner, and

        every person shall be restored to his family.    V. 25:10

315. In the Jubilee year you shall not sow your field, prune your vineyard, or reap the

        wild growth.    V. 25:11

316. The Jubilee year shall be holy to you.    V. 25:12

317. In the Jubilee year you shall eat from the increase of the field.    V. 25:12

318. In the Jubilee year you shall restore everyone to his possession.    V. 25:13

319. You shall not oppress one another in buying or selling.    V. 25:14

320. In buying or selling, the price shall be according to the years since the last Jubilee

        and until the next Jubilee.    V. 25:15

321. The price shall increase with more years before the next Jubilee and decrease with

         fewer years.    V. 25:16

322. You shall have respect for one another in your dealings.    V. 25:17

323. You shall not sell the land in perpetuity.    V. 25:25 - 25:28

324. The laws pertaining to redemption of the land must be obeyed.

325. The laws pertaining to dwellings in walled and unwalled cities must

         be obeyed.    V. 25:29, 25:31

326. Houses of the Levites, in a walled city or not, shall always be redeemable

        by them.    V. 25:32

327. Any house of the Levites shall be released in the Jubilee year.    V. 25:33

328. The open country of the Levites shall not be sold.    V. 25:34

329. If your relative becomes too poor to support himself, you shall take him in.    V. 25:35

330. You shall take no interest or profit from him while he lives with you.    V. 25:36, 25:37

331. If your relative sells himself to you, you shall not employ him as a

        bondservant.    V. 25:39

332. He shall be as a hired hand or a sojourner with you.    V. 25:40

333. He shall be restored, he and his children, to his possession in the

        Jubilee year.    V. 25:41

334. They shall not be sold as a bondservant.€    V. 25:42

335. You shall buy bondservants only from the nations around you or the foreigners

        sojourning with you.    V. 25:44, 25:45

336. You may make your foreign bondservants an inheritance for your

        children.    V. 25:46

337. An Israelite who sells himself to a sojourner shall be redeemed by his relative

        or by himself.    V. 25:7 - 25:49

338. He shall be as a hired servant with the stranger in your eyes..    V. 25:53

339. If he is not redeemed, he shall be released in the Jubilee year.    V. 25:54

 

[Return to Leviticus Chapters]  [Prev:  Levi. 24]  [Next:  Levi. 26]