וַיְהִי כִשְׁמֹעַ כָּל־מַלְכֵי הָאֱמֹרִי אֲשֶׁר בְּעֵבֶר הַיַּרְדֵּן יָמָּה וְכָל־מַלְכֵי הַכְּנַעֲנִי אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַיָּם אֵת 5:1
אֲשֶׁר־הֹובִישׁ יְהוָה אֶת־מֵי הַיַּרְדֵּן מִפְּנֵי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל עַד־עָבְרָנוּ וַיִּמַּס לְבָבָם וְלֹא־הָיָה בָם עֹוד רוּחַ מִפְּנֵי בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
Josh. 5:1 And it happened, when all the kings of the Amorites who were on the east side of the Jordan and all the kings of the Canaanites who were by the sea heard how the Lord had dried up the waters of the Jordan from before the children of Israel until they crossed over it, that their heart melted and there was no more spirit in them in the face of the children of Israel.
בָּעֵת הַהִיא אָמַר יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ עֲשֵׂה לְךָ חַרְבוֹת צֻרִים וְשׁוּב מֹל אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל שֵׁנִית׃ 5:2
Josh. 5:2 At that time the Lord said to Joshua, “Make for yourself sharp knives and again circumcise the children of Israel a second time.”
וַיַּעַשׂ־לוֹ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ חַרְבוֹת צֻרִים וַיָּמָל אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־גִּבְעַת הָעֲרָלוֹת׃ 5:3
Josh. 5:3 So Joshua made sharp knives for himself and circumcised the children of Israel near the hill of the uncircumcised.
וְזֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר־מָל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כָּל־הָעָם הַיֹּצֵא מִמִּצְרַיִם הַזְּכָרִים כֹּל אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה מֵתוּ 5:4
בַמִּדְבָּר בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתָם מִמִּצְרָיִם׃
Josh. 5:4 And this is the reason why Joshua circumcised: All the people who came forth from Egypt of the males, all men of battle, died in the wilderness along the way after their coming forth from Egypt
כִּי־מֻלִים הָיוּ כָּל־הָעָם הַיֹּצְאִים וְכָל־הָעָם הַיִּלֹּדִים בַּמִּדְבָּר בַּדֶּרֶךְ בְּצֵאתָם מִמִּצְרַיִם לֹא־מָלוּ׃ 5:5
Josh. 5:5 Certainly all the people of the exodus were circumcised, but all the people of those born in the wilderness along the way after the exodus from Egypt were not circumcised.
כִּי אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה הָלְכוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּמִּדְבָּר עַד־תֹּם כָּל־הַגֹּוי אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה הַיֹּצְאִים מִמִּצְרַיִם 5:6
אֲשֶׁר לֹא־שָׁמְעוּ בְּקֹול יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לָהֶם לְבִלְתִּי הַרְאֹותָם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה
לַאֲבֹותָם לָתֶת לָנוּ אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃
Josh. 5:6 For forty years the children of Israel walked in the wilderness until all the nation of men of battle of the exodus from Egypt came to an end, because they didn't listen to the voice of the Lord, to whom the Lord swore He would not let see the land that the Lord swore to their fathers to give to us, a land gushing milk and honey.
וְאֶת־בְּנֵיהֶם הֵקִים תַּחְתָּם אֹתָם מָל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כִּי־עֲרֵלִים הָיוּ כִּי לֹא־מָלוּ אוֹתָם בַּדָּרֶךְ׃ 5:7
Josh. 5:7 And their children whom He lifted up instead of them, Joshua circumcised them, for they were uncircumcised because they had not circumcised them along the way.
וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר־תַּמּוּ כָל־הַגּוֹי לְהִמּוֹל וַיֵּשְׁבוּ תַחְתָּם בַּמַּחֲנֶה עַד חֲיוֹתָם׃ 5:8
Josh. 5:8 So it happened, once all the people put an end to being circumcised, that they stayed in their places in the camp until they were whole.
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ הַיּוֹם גַּלּוֹתִי אֶת־חֶרְפַּת מִצְרַיִם מֵעֲלֵיכֶם וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא 5:9
גִּלְגָּל עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃
Josh. 5:9 And the Lord said to Joshua, “Today I have removed the shame of Egypt from off of you.” Therefore the name of that place has been called Gilgal until this day.
One of the meanings of the root word of the name Gilgal, which I think is the only one that applies here, is to impose additional duty. I believe it refers to the circumcisions. Notice also the phrase “until this day.”
וַיַּחֲנוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בַּגִּלְגָּל וַיַּעֲשׂוּ אֶת־הַפֶּסַח בְּאַרְבָּעָה עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ בָּעֶרֶב בְּעַרְבוֹת יְרִיחוֹ׃ 5:10
Josh. 5:10 And the children of Israel camped in Gilgal, and they observed the Passover on the fourteenth day of the month in the evening on the plains of Jericho.
Although I need no more proof for the Jewish day not starting in the evening, here is more of it. The children of Israel must have sacrificed the paschal lamb and ate unleavened bread and bitter herbs on the eve of the fifteenth. The bread came from the land, not from manna. See the next two verses.
וַיֹּאכְלוּ מֵעֲבוּר הָאָרֶץ מִמָּחֳרַת הַפֶּסַח מַצּוֹת וְקָלוּי בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 5:11
Josh. 5:11 And that selfsame day they ate unleavened cakes and parched corn from the grain of the land from the next day of the Passover.
Parched corn? From the grain of the land? On Passover? Now where did the Ashkenazi rabbis get the idea that corn is not kosher for Passover? Of course, as is sometimes the case, the meaning of the key word here is uncertain. The word that is translated as (and) parched corn, yWlq'w, appears no where else in the bible, and could also be in an unconventional form. However, there is not much doubt as to the scribe’s intended meaning. Nothing else seems to fit in the context. The root of the word literally means roasted.
וַיִּשְׁבֹּת הַמָּן מִמָּחֳרָת בְּאָכְלָם מֵעֲבוּר הָאָרֶץ וְלֹא־הָיָה עוֹד לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מָן וַיֹּאכְלוּ מִתְּבוּאַת 5:12
אֶרֶץ כְּנַעַן בַּשָּׁנָה הַהִיא׃
Josh. 5:12 And the manna had ceased from the next day after their eating from the produce of the land, and there was no more manna for the children of Israel, but they ate from the fruit of the land of Canaan in that year.
How could manna have fallen on Passover anyway? Does this mean that manna did not fall throughout any of the Passovers in the wilderness? Probably -- in fact, most assuredly. That is, if Passover was indeed celebrated in the wilderness, something we’re not entirely certain about.
וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹת יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בִּירִיחוֹ וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה־אִישׁ עֹמֵד לְנֶגְדּוֹ וְחַרְבּוֹ שְׁלוּפָה בְּיָדוֹ וַיֵּלֶךְ 5:13
יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֵלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ הֲלָנוּ אַתָּה אִם־לְצָרֵינוּ׃
Josh. 5:13 And it happened, while Joshua was being near Jericho, that he raised his eyes and looked, and behold, a man stood facing him and his sword was drawn in his hand. And Joshua went to him and said to him, “Are you for us or for our adversaries?”
וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי אֲנִי שַׂר־צְבָא־יְהוָה עַתָּה בָאתִי וַיִּפֹּל יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶל־פָּנָיו אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ 5:14
מָה אֲדֹנִי מְדַבֵּר אֶל־עַבְדּוֹ׃
Josh. 5:14 And he said, “Neither, for I am captain of the host of the Lord; now I have come.” And Joshua fell down with his face to the earth and bowed down and said to him, “What does my lord say to his servant?”
As we shall see in the next chapter, this “captain of the host of the Lord” was not there to fight. His purpose was to tell Joshua to remove his shoes, for the Lord would be speaking to him directly.
וַיֹּאמֶר שַׂר־צְבָא יְהוָה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שַׁל־נַעַלְךָ מֵעַל רַגְלֶךָ כִּי הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה עֹמֵד עָלָיו 5:15
קֹדֶשׁ הוּא וַיַּעַשׂ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ כֵּן׃
Josh. 5:15 And the captain of the host of the Lord said to Joshua, “Slip your shoe from off your foot, for the place on which you are standing, it is holy.” And Joshua did so.
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