Isaiah 10

 

הוֹי הַחֹקְקִים חִקְקֵי־אָוֶן וּמְכַתְּבִים עָמָל כִּתֵּבוּ׃   10:1

Isai. 10:1   “Woe to the decriers of ordinances of mischief

                              and the writers of wickedness they write,

לְהַטּוֹת מִדִּין דַּלִּים וְלִגְזֹל מִשְׁפַּט עֲנִיֵּי עַמִּי לִהְיוֹת אַלְמָנוֹת שְׁלָלָם וְאֶת־יְתוֹמִים יָבֹזּוּ׃   10:2

Isai. 10:2   turning aside the needy from judgment,

                              and taking away the right of the poor of My people,

                   widows becoming their spoil,

                              and orphans they may rob!”

וּמַה־תַּעֲשׂוּ לְיוֹם פְּקֻדָּה וּלְשׁוֹאָה מִמֶּרְחָק תָּבוֹא עַל־מִי תָּנוּסוּ לְעֶזְרָה וְאָנָה תַעַזְבוּ כְּבוֹדְכֶם׃   10:3

Isai. 10:3   And what will you do about the day of reckoning

                              and about the devastation from afar that will come?

                    To whom will you flee for help?

                              And where will you leave your splendor?

בִּלְתִּי כָרַע תַּחַת אַסִּיר וְתַחַת הֲרוּגִים יִפֹּלוּ בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־שָׁב אַפּוֹ וְעוֹד יָדוֹ נְטוּיָה׃   10:4

Isai. 10:4   Except cast down with the captives

                              and with the slain will they fall.

                   With all this, His “anger” has not been relieved

                              and His “hand” still stretches forth.

הוֹי אַשּׁוּר שֵׁבֶט אַפִּי וּמַטֶּה־הוּא בְיָדָם זַעְמִי׃   10:5

Isai. 10:5   “Alas, Assyria will be the rod of My anger,

                              and it will be the staff in their hand,

                    of My indignation.”

בְּגוֹי חָנֵף אֲשַׁלְּחֶנּוּ וְעַל־עַם עֶבְרָתִי אֲצַוֶּנּוּ לִשְׁלֹל שָׁלָל וְלָבֹז בַּז (ולשימו) [וּלְשׂוּמוֹ] מִרְמָס כְּחֹמֶר   10:6 חוּצוֹת׃

Isai. 10:6   “I shall send them against an impious nation,

                              and I will command them against the people of My ‘wrath’

                     to take the spoil, and to take the prey,

                              and to make it a trampling place like the mire of the streets.”

Two comments:  First the pronoun it in the last line of this verse refers to the impious nation in the first line as well as the people in the second line.  Second, the word in parentheses is misspelled, containing a yad that should be a vav.  The correction is in the brackets.

וְהוּא לֹא־כֵן יְדַמֶּה וּלְבָבוֹ לֹא־כֵן יַחְשֹׁב כִּי לְהַשְׁמִיד בִּלְבָבוֹ וּלְהַכְרִית גּוֹיִם לֹא מְעָט׃   10:7

Isai. 10:7   But He will not so compare,

                             and His “heart” will not so contrive,

                    for to destroy, in His “heart,”

                             and to cut down nations, is no small thing.

כִּי יֹאמַר הֲלֹא שָׂרַי יַחְדָּו מְלָכִים׃   10:8

Isai. 10:8   For He will say,

                             “Is it not that My princes likewise are kings?”

הֲלֹא כְּכַרְכְּמִישׁ כַּלְנוֹ אִם־לֹא כְאַרְפַּד חֲמָת אִם־לֹא כְדַמֶּשֶׂק שֹׁמְרוֹן׃   10:9

Isai. 10:9   “Is it not that Calno is like Carchemish?

                             Surely Hamath is like Arpad.

                    Surely Samaria is like Damascus.”

These cities and regions, mostly pagan except for Samaria, are all those that were defeated before or after Isaiah’s time.  Many scholars believe this chapter or verse was not written by Isaiah, but added some time after the fall of Israel (as Samaria fell with Jerusalem and Israel -- the sourthern kingdom).  Why do they not consider this a prophetic vison by Isaiah?

כַּאֲשֶׁר מָצְאָה יָדִי לְמַמְלְכֹת הָאֱלִיל וּפְסִילֵיהֶם מִירוּשָׁלִַם וּמִשֹּׁמְרוֹן׃   10:10

Isai. 10:10   “As My ‘hand’ has come forth

                              to the kingdom of the idols and their graven images,

                       from Jerusalem and from Samaria,

הֲלֹא כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי לְשֹׁמְרוֹן וְלֶאֱלִילֶיהָ כֵּן אֶעֱשֶׂה לִירוּשָׁלִַם וְלַעֲצַבֶּיהָ׃   10:11

Isai. 10:11   is it not that, as I have done to Samaria and to her idols,

                               so shall I do to Jerusalem and to her idols?”

וְהָיָה כִּי־יְבַצַּע אֲדֹנָי אֶת־כָּל־מַעֲשֵׂהוּ בְּהַר צִיּוֹן וּבִירוּשָׁלִָם אֶפְקֹד עַל־פְּרִי־גֹדֶל לְבַב מֶלֶךְ־אַשּׁוּר   10:12 וְעַל־תִּפְאֶרֶת רוּם עֵינָיו׃

Isai. 10:12   And it shall be, when my Master finishes all His work on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem, “I will do judgment against the fruit of the greatness of the heart of the king of Assyria and against the glory of the haughtiness of his eyes.”

כִּי אָמַר בְּכֹחַ יָדִי עָשִׂיתִי וּבְחָכְמָתִי כִּי נְבֻנוֹתִי וְאָסִיר גְּבוּלֹת עַמִּים (וַעֲתִידֹתֵיהֶם) [וַעֲתוּדוֹתֵיהֶם]   10:13 שׁוֹשֵׂתִי וְאוֹרִיד כַּאבִּיר יוֹשְׁבִים׃

Isai. 10:13   For he says,

                     “With the strength of my hand have I done,

                                and with my wisdom,

                      for I have been perceptive

                                and have taken away the borders of the nations,

                      and I have plundered their treasures,

                                and I have brought down the mightiest of the inhabitants.”

The word in parentheses is not spelled correctly, having a yad in place of a vav, and another vav might be missing.  The corrections are in the brackets.

וַתִּמְצָא כַקֵּן יָדִי לְחֵיל הָעַמִּים וְכֶאֱסֹף בֵּיצִים עֲזֻבוֹת כָּל־הָאָרֶץ אֲנִי אָסָפְתִּי וְלֹא הָיָה נֹדֵד כָּנָף   10:14 וּפֹצֶה פֶה וּמְצַפְצֵף׃

Isai. 10:14   “And My ‘hand’ has been found,

                                 like a nest for the wealth of the nations,

                      as like a gatherer of forsaken eggs.

                                All the earth have I gathered,

                      and there was not a flapping of a wing,

                                or opening of a mouth, or chirping.”

הֲיִתְפָּאֵר הַגַּרְזֶן עַל הַחֹצֵב בּוֹ אִם־יִתְגַּדֵּל הַמַּשּׂוֹר עַל־מְנִיפוֹ כְּהָנִיף שֵׁבֶט וְאֶת־מְרִימָיו כְּהָרִים   10:15 מַטֶּה לֹא־עֵץ׃

Isai. 10:15   May the axe boast because of he who hews with it?

                               Or should a saw be magnified because of its mover,

                       as if the rod moves its lifters,

                                the staff lifts as if not of wood?

לָכֵן יְשַׁלַּח הָאָדוֹן יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בְּמִשְׁמַנָּיו רָזוֹן וְתַחַת כְּבֹדוֹ יֵקַד יְקֹד כִּיקוֹד אֵשׁ׃   10:16

Isai. 10:16   Therefore the Master, the Lord of hosts,

                               will send leanness into his fertile fields,

                      and the place of his glory shall burn,

                               burning like a flame of fire.

וְהָיָה אוֹר־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְאֵשׁ וּקְדוֹשׁוֹ לְלֶהָבָה וּבָעֲרָה וְאָכְלָה שִׁיתוֹ וּשְׁמִירוֹ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד׃   10:17

Isai. 10:17   And the Light of Israel shall become for a fire

                               and its Holy One for a flame,

                      and it shall burn and devour its thorns

                               and its briers in one day.

וּכְבוֹד יַעְרוֹ וְכַרְמִלּוֹ מִנֶּפֶשׁ וְעַד־בָּשָׂר יְכַלֶּה וְהָיָה כִּמְסֹס נֹסֵס׃   10:18

Isai. 10:18   And the glory of its forests and its fruitful fields,

                               from soul and up to flesh, He will consume,

                       that it will be like the extinguishing of a beacon.

וּשְׁאָר עֵץ יַעְרוֹ מִסְפָּר יִהְיוּ וְנַעַר יִכְתְּבֵם׃   10:19

Isai. 10:19   And the remnant of the trees of its forests

                               shall be so few,

                      even a child may describe them.

וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא לֹא־יוֹסִיף עוֹד שְׁאָר יִשְׂרָאֵל וּפְלֵיטַת בֵּית־יַעֲקֹב לְהִשָּׁעֵן עַל־מַכֵּהוּ וְנִשְׁעַן   10:20 עַל־יְהוָה קְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל בֶּאֱמֶת׃

Isai. 10:20   And it shall be on that day,

                               the remnant of Israel shall continue no longer,

                      with the escaped of the house of Jacob,

                               to depend on they who smote it,

                      but shall faithfully lean on the Lord, the Holy One of Israel.

שְׁאָר יָשׁוּב שְׁאָר יַעֲקֹב אֶל־אֵל גִּבּוֹר׃   10:21

Isai. 10:21   A remnant of the remnant of Jacob

                               shall return to mighty God.

כִּי אִם־יִהְיֶה עַמְּךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל כְּחוֹל הַיָּם שְׁאָר יָשׁוּב בּוֹ כִּלָּיוֹן חָרוּץ שׁוֹטֵף צְדָקָה׃   10:22

Isai. 10:22   For though your people, O Israel,

                               may have been like the sand of the sea,

                      a remnant shall be coming back into it.

                               A destruction is decreed,

                      an outpouring of justice.

כִּי כָלָה וְנֶחֱרָצָה אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה צְבָאוֹת עֹשֶׂה בְּקֶרֶב כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃   10:23

Isai. 10:23   For as a symbol, the Master, the Lord of hosts,

                               is preparing a destruction in the midst of the whole land.

לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה צְבָאוֹת אַל־תִּירָא עַמִּי יֹשֵׁב צִיּוֹן מֵאַשּׁוּר בַּשֵּׁבֶט יַכֶּכָּה וּמַטֵּהוּ יִשָּׂא־עָלֶיךָ   10:24 בְּדֶרֶךְ מִצְרָיִם׃

Isai. 10:24   Therefore thus says the Master, the Lord of hosts: “You need have no fear, My people, dweller of Zion, when Assyria will smite you with a staff and its rod will be lifted up against you in the manner of Egypt,

כִּי־עוֹד מְעַט מִזְעָר וְכָלָה זַעַם וְאַפִּי עַל־תַּבְלִיתָם׃   10:25

Isai. 10:25   for a very little longer, and the indignation will be completed, then My 'anger' shall be for their destruction.”

וְעוֹרֵר עָלָיו יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת שׁוֹט כְּמַכַּת מִדְיָן בְּצוּר עוֹרֵב וּמַטֵּהוּ עַל־הַיָּם וּנְשָׂאוֹ בְּדֶרֶךְ מִצְרָיִם׃   10:26

Isai. 10:26   And the Lord of hosts shall stir up a scourge against him like the slaughter of Midian at the rock of Oreb when His staff was over the sea, and He lifted it up in the manner of Egypt.

It’s not clear to me what is meant by the slaughter of Midian.  The only incident I can relate it to is in Judges Chapters 7 and 8, although no massive slaughter appears to be mentioned there other than the two princes and kings of Midian (and their armies).  The reference to the Lord’s staff over the sea, is equally obscure.  Maybe Isaiah employed these obscure references merely to contrast the destruction of Judah in v. 10:24 and of Assyria in this verse, using the same picture of a raised staff or rod, “in the manner of Egypt.”

וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יָסוּר סֻבֳּלוֹ מֵעַל שִׁכְמֶךָ וְעֻלּוֹ מֵעַל צַוָּארֶךָ וְחֻבַּל עֹל מִפְּנֵי־שָׁמֶן׃   10:27

Isai. 10:27   And it shall be on that day,

                              his burden shall be withdrawn from your shoulder

                      and his yoke from your neck,

                              and the yoke shall be withheld

                      from the presence of the anointed.

Very interesting!  In this verse Isaiah refers to the yoke and the burden as the oppression of Israel.  Opposed to this notion, the Torah and its commandments are not a yoke, they are a blessed gift.

בָּא עַל־עַיַּת עָבַר בְּמִגְרוֹן לְמִכְמָשׂ יַפְקִיד כֵּלָיו׃   10:28

Isai. 10:28   He has come against Aiath,

                               he has passed through Migron,

                       he will deliver his baggage to Michmas.

This verse and the next four seem to be referring to the march of the Assyrian army down to Jerusalem over a hundred years later.  Notice how in his prophesies, Isaiah sometimes mixes tenses, alternating past and future.

עָבְרוּ מַעְבָּרָה גֶּבַע מָלוֹן לָנוּ חָרְדָה הָרָמָה גִּבְעַת שָׁאוּל נָסָה׃   10:29

Isai. 10:29   They have crossed the pass,

                               they have taken up lodging at Geba.

                      Ramah trembles, Gibeath-shaul flees.

צַהֲלִי קוֹלֵךְ בַּת־גַּלִּים הַקְשִׁיבִי לַיְשָׁה עֲנִיָּה עֲנָתוֹת׃   10:30

Isai. 10:30   Lift up your voice, O daughter of Gallim!

                               Hearken, O Laish, O poor of Anathoth!

נָדְדָה מַדְמֵנָה יֹשְׁבֵי הַגֵּבִים הֵעִיזוּ׃   10:31

Isai. 10:31   Madmenah has fled.

                               The inhabitants of Gebim

                      have fled to safety.

עוֹד הַיּוֹם בְּנֹב לַעֲמֹד יְנֹפֵף יָדוֹ הַר (בֵּּית)־[בַּת]־צִיּוֹן גִּבְעַת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃   10:32

Isai. 10:32   While standing today at Nob,

                               he will shake his hand

                       at the mount of the daughter of Zion,

                                the hill of Jerusalem.

The word in parentheses, having an extra yad, is the wrong word, and the correction is shown in the brackets.

הִנֵּה הָאָדוֹן יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְסָעֵף פֻּארָה בְּמַעֲרָצָה וְרָמֵי הַקּוֹמָה גְּדוּעִים וְהַגְּבֹהִים יִשְׁפָּלוּ׃   10:33

Isai. 10:33   Behold, the Master, the Lord of hosts,

                                is lopping the boughs with terror

                      as the highest of stature are being cut down.

וְנִקַּף סִבְכֵי הַיַּעַר בַּבַּרְזֶל וְהַלְּבָנוֹן בְּאַדִּיר יִפּוֹל׃   10:34

Isai. 10:34   And He shall cut down the thickets

                                of the forest with iron,

                      and Lebanon shall be felled

                                by a Mighty One.

 

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