Genesis 10

 

וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת בְּנֵי נֹחַ שֵׁם חָם וָיָפֶת וַיִּוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם בָּנִים אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל  10:1

Gene. 10:1         And these are the generations of the sons of Noah -- Shem, Ham, and Japheth.  And sons were born to them after the flood.

The names of the sons have appeared in this order – Shem, Ham, and Japheth – where ever the three are mentioned together (Gene. 5:32, 6:10, 7:13, and 9:18). This is rather unusual, as sons are usually mentioned in the order of their birth.  Maybe this is an indication that they were indeed triplets.

בְּנֵי יֶפֶת גֹּמֶר וּמָגוֹג, וּמָדַי וְיָוָן וְתֻבָל וּמֶשֶׁךְ וְתִירָס  10:2

Gene. 10:2      The sons of Japheth were Gomer and Magog and Madai and Javan and Tubal and Meshech and Tiras.

All these grandsons of Noah are considered to be progenitors of Middle-eastern peoples.

                                       [Return to Ezek. 27:13]              [Return to Ezek. 38:2]              [Return to Psal. 120:5]

וּבְנֵי גֹּמֶר אַשְׁכְּנַז וְרִיפַת וְתֹגַרְמָה  10:3

Gene. 10:3      And the sons of Gomer were Ashkenaz and Riphath and Togarmah.

                                                                                                                                     [Return to Ezek. 38:6]

וּבְנֵי יָוָן אֱלִישָׁה וְתַרְשִׁישׁ כִּתִּים וְדֹדָנִים  10:4

Gene. 10:4      And the sons of Javan were Elishah and Tarshish, Kittim and Dodanim.

מֵאֵלֶּה נִפְרְדוּ אִיֵּי הַגּוֹיִם בְּאַרְצֹתָם אִישׁ לִלְשֹׁנוֹ לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם  10:5

Gene. 10:5      From these, the islands of nations were separated in their lands, everyone according to his tongue, according to their families, in their nations.       [Return to Gene. 11:1]

וּבְנֵי חָם כּוּשׁ וּמִצְרַיִם וּפוּט וּכְנָעַן  10:6

Gene. 10:6         And the sons of Ham were Cush and Mizraim and Put and Canaan.

                                                                                                                              [Return to Psal. 78:51]

וּבְנֵי כוּשׁ סְבָא וַחֲוִילָה וְסַבְתָּה וְרַעְמָה וְסַבְתְּכָא וּבְנֵי רַעְמָה שְׁבָא וּדְדָן  10:7

Gene. 10:7      And the sons of Cush were Seba and Havilah and Sabtah and Raamah and Sabteca.   And the sons of Raamah were Sheba and Dedan.

וְכוּשׁ יָלַד אֶת נִמְרֹד הוּא הֵחֵל לִהְיוֹת גִּבֹּר בָּאָרֶץ  10:8

Gene. 10:8      And Cush begot Nimrod – he was hoping to become a mighty one on earth.

הוּא הָיָה גִבֹּר צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל כֵּן יֵאָמַר כְּנִמְרֹד גִּבּוֹר צַיִד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה  10:9

Gene. 10:9      He was a mighty hunter before the Lord, wherefore it can be said about Nimrod, “He was a mighty hunter before the Lord.”

An odd, seemingly repetitious and superfluous expression at the end of this verse!  Why was it added?  Presumably, the scribe had a reason.  Was he acknowledging a description that was well-known in his time?

וַתְּהִי רֵאשִׁית מַמְלַכְתּוֹ בָּבֶל וְאֶרֶךְ וְאַכַּד וְכַלְנֵה בְּאֶרֶץ שִׁנְעָר  10:10

Gene. 10:10    And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel and Erech and Accad and Caineh in the land of Shinar.

מִן הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא יָצָא אַשּׁוּר וַיִּבֶן אֶת נִינְוֵה וְאֶת רְחֹבֹת עִיר וְאֶת כָּלַח  10:11

Gene. 10:10    Out of that land, Asshur went forth and built Nineveh and Rehoboth, Ir and Calach,

וְאֶת רֶסֶן בֵּין נִינְוֵה וּבֵין כָּלַח הִוא הָעִיר הַגְּדֹלָה  10:12

Gene. 10:12    and Rezen, between Nineveh and Calach; the same is the great city.

וּמִצְרַיִם יָלַד אֶת לוּדִים וְאֶת עֲנָמִים וְאֶת לְהָבִים וְאֶת נַפְתֻּחִים  10:13

Gene. 10:13    And Mizraim begot Ludim and Anamim and Lehabim and Naphtuhim

וְאֶת פַּתְרֻסִים וְאֶת כַּסְלֻחִים אֲשֶׁר יָצְאוּ מִשָּׁם פְּלִשְׁתִּים וְאֶת כַּפְתֹּרִים  10:14

Gene. 10:14    and Pathrusim and Casluhim (from whom the Philistines came forth) and Caphtorim.

וּכְנַעַן יָלַד אֶת צִידֹן בְּכֹרוֹ וְאֶת חֵת  10:15

Gene. 10:15    And Canaan begot Zidon, his first born, then Heth

וְאֶת הַיְבוּסִי וְאֶת הָאֱמֹרִי וְאֵת הַגִּרְגָּשִׁי  10:16

Gene. 10:16    and the Jebusite and the Amorite and the Girgashite

וְאֶת הַחִוִּי וְאֶת הַעַרְקִי וְאֶת הַסִּינִי  10:17

Gene. 10:17    and the Hivite and the Arkite and the Sinite

וְאֶת הָאַרְוָדִי וְאֶת הַצְּמָרִי וְאֶת הַחֲמָתִי וְאַחַר נָפֹצוּ מִשְׁפְּחוֹת הַכְּנַעֲנִי  10:18

Gene. 10:18    and the Arvadite and the Zemarite and the Hamathite.   And afterward the families of the Canaanites were dispersed.

וַיְהִי גְּבוּל הַכְּנַעֲנִי מִצִּידֹן בֹּאֲכָה גְרָרָה עַד עַזָּה בֹּאֲכָה סְדֹמָה וַעֲמֹרָה וְאַדְמָה  10:19

וּצְבֹיִם עַד לָשַׁע

Gene. 10:19    And the Canaanite border was from Zidon as you go toward Gerar to Gaza, as you go toward Sodom and Gomorrah and Admah and Zeboim to Lasha.               [Return to Hose. 11:8]

אֵלֶּה בְנֵיחָם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִלְשֹׁנֹתָם בְּאַרְצֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם  10:20

Gene. 10:20    These were the sons of Ham according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands in their nations.                                                                                  [Return to Gene.11:1]

וּלְשֵׁם יֻלַּד גַּם הוּא אֲבִי כָּל בְּנֵי עֵבֶר אֲחִי יֶפֶת הַגָּדוֹל  10:21

Gene. 10:21    And was also born to Shem (he was the father of all the children of Eber), the eldest brother of Japheth.

The grammar of this verse seems to make its meaning elusive.  But placing the middle statement in parentheses, as I have, helps clear up the confusion.   Japheth was the younger brother of Shem, not of Eber.  The brothers of Eber are named in Genesis 11.  Eber can be associated with the term Hebrew (see Gene. 14:13).  So I believe here we are told that Shem was the progenitor of the Israelites.  Some scholars, however, associate the term eber with across, one of the meanings of the term, and don’t consider it a name.  But I find this hard to accept:  Why would the scribe say the children of across?  Besides, later in Genesis 11 we find that Shem is the great grandfather of Eber, and Abraham is a descendant of Eber.

בְּנֵי שֵׁם עֵילָם וְאַשּׁוּר וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד וְלוּד וַאֲרָם  10:22

Gene. 10:22    The sons of Shem were Elam and Asshur and Arpechshad and Lud and Aram.

וּבְנֵי אֲרָם עוּץ וְחוּל וְגֶתֶר וָמַשׁ  10:23

Gene. 10:23    And the sons of Aram were Uz and Hul and Gether and Mash.

וְאַרְפַּכְשַׁד יָלַד אֶת שָׁלַח וְשֶׁלַח יָלַד אֶת עֵבֶר  10:24

Gene. 10:24    And Arpachshad begot Shelah, and Shelah begot Eber.

This must be the Eber mentioned above in v. 10:21. 

וּלְעֵבֶר יֻלַּד שְׁנֵי בָנִים שֵׁם הָאֶחָד פֶּלֶג כִּי בְיָמָיו נִפְלְגָה הָאָרֶץ וְשֵׁם אָחִיו יָקְטָן  10:25

Gene. 10:25    And  was born to Eber two sons; the name of the first was Peleg (for in his days the earth was divided) and the name of his brother was Joktan.

The name Peleg means divisionJoktan means smallness.  If Eber was the father of the Hebrews, then these two names of his sons are indeed appropriate.  The Jews have always been divided among themselves as well as from other people, and they are small in number.

וְיָקְטָן יָלַד אֶת אַלְמוֹדָד וְאֶת שָׁלֶף וְאֶת חֲצַרְמָוֶת וְאֶת יָרַח  10:26

Gene. 10:26    And Joktan begot Almodod and Sheleph and Hazarmaveth and Jerach

וְאֶת הֲדוֹרָם וְאֶת אוּזָל וְאֶת דִּקְלָה  10:27

Gene. 10:27    and Hadoram and Uzal and Diklah

וְאֶת עוֹבָל וְאֶת אֲבִימָאֵל וְאֶת שְׁבָא  10:28

Gene. 10:28    and Obal and Abimael and Sheba

וְאֶת אוֹפִר וְאֶת חֲוִילָה וְאֶת יוֹבָב כָּל אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי יָקְטָן  10:29

Gene. 10:29    and Ophir and Havilah and Jobab.  All these were the sons of Joktan.

וַיְהִי מוֹשָׁבָם מִמֵּשָׁא בֹּאֲכָה סְפָרָה הַר הַקֶּדֶם  10:30

Gene. 10:30    And their dwelling place was from Mesha going toward Sephar, the mountain of the east.

אֵלֶּה בְנֵי שֵׁם לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִלְשֹׁנֹתָם בְּאַרְצֹתָם לְגוֹיֵהֶם  10:31

Gene. 10:31    These were the descendants of Shem according to their families, according to their tongues, in their lands according to their nations.                                  [Return to Gene.11:1]

אֵלֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹת בְּנֵינֹחַ לְתוֹלְדֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם וּמֵאֵלֶּה נִפְרְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם בָּאָרֶץ אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל  10:32

Gene. 10:32    These were the families of the sons of Noah according to their generations in their nations, and from these, the nations were separated on the earth after the flood.

 

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