Exodus 30

 

וְעָשִׂיתָ מִזְבֵּחַ מִקְטַר קְטֹרֶת עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתֹו   30:1

Exod. 30:1  And you shall make an altar to burn incense.  Of wood of acacia you shall make it.”

אַמָּה אָרְכֹּו וְאַמָּה רָחְבֹּו רָבוּעַ יִהְיֶה וְאַמָּתַיִם קֹמָתֹו מִמֶּנּוּ קַרְנֹתָיו   30:2

Exod. 30:2  “A cubit shall be its length and a cubit its width.  It shall be square, and its height, two cubits. Its horns shall be from out of it.”

The incense altar would be about 18 inches square and about 36 inches high.

וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתֹו זָהָב טָהֹור אֶת־גַּגֹּו וְאֶת־קִירֹתָיו סָבִיב וְאֶת־קַרְנֹתָיו וְעָשִׂיתָ לֹּו זֵר זָהָב סָבִיב   30:3

Exod. 30:3  “And you shall overlay it pure gold, its top and its sides all around and its horns, and you shall make a crown of gold for it all around.”

וּשְׁתֵּי טַבְּעֹת זָהָב תַּעֲשֶׂה־לֹּו מִתַּחַת לְזֵרֹו עַל שְׁתֵּי צַלְעֹתָיו תַּעֲשֶׂה עַל־שְׁנֵי צִדָּיו וְהָיָה לְבָתִּים   30:4

בַדִּים לָשֵׂאת אֹתֹו בָּהֵמָּה

Exod. 30:4  “And you shall make two rings of gold for it from below its crown on two of its ribs.  You shall fit them on two of its sides.  And it shall be for housing for staves to carry it with them.”

וְעָשִׂיתָ אֶת־הַבַּדִּים עֲצֵי שִׁטִּים וְצִפִּיתָ אֹתָם זָהָב   30:5

Exod. 30:5  “And you shall make the staves of wood of acacia and you shall lay gold over them.”

וְנָתַתָּה אֹתֹו לִפְנֵי הַפָּרֹכֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־אֲרֹן הָעֵדֻת לִפְנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָעֵדֻת אֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לְךָ   30:6

שָׁמָּה

Exod. 30:6  “And you shall set it before the veil that is over the ark of the testimony before the ark cover that is over the testimony where I will meet with you.”

וְהִקְטִיר עָלָיו אַהֲרֹן קְטֹרֶת סַמִּים בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר בְּהֵיטִיבֹו אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת יַקְטִירֶנָּה   30:7

Exod. 30:7  “And Aaron shall burn incense of sweet spices on it every morning.  With his dressing the lamps he shall burn it.”

From this verse and the next, it seems that the lamps were to be lit only during the night.  The lamps were to be dressed in the morning.  Dressing the lamps means to me cleaning them of residue and any ashes, and replenishing the wicks and oil in preparation for the evening lighting.  See Exod. 27:21.

וּבְהַעֲלֹת אַהֲרֹן אֶת־הַנֵּרֹת בֵּין הָעֲרְבַּיִם יַקְטִירֶנָּה קְטֹרֶת תָּמִיד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם   30:8

Exod. 30:8  “And on Aaron’s lighting the lamps at dusk he shall burn it, a continual incense before the Lord throughout your generations.”

לֹא־תַעֲלוּ עָלָיו קְטֹרֶת זָרָה וְעֹלָה וּמִנְחָה וְנֵסֶךְ לֹא תִסְּכוּ עָלָיו   30:9

Exod. 30:9  “You shall not offer on it strange incense or a burnt offering or a meal offering.  And you shall not pour a drink offering on it.”

וְכִפֶּר אַהֲרֹן עַל־קַרְנֹתָיו אַחַת בַּשָּׁנָה מִדַּם חַטַּאת הַכִּפֻּרִים אַחַת בַּשָּׁנָה יְכַפֵּר עָלָיו לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם    30:10

קֹדֶשׁ־קָדָשִׁים הוּא לַיהוָה

Exod. 30:10   “And Aaron shall make atonement on its horns once a year.  From the blood of the sin offering of atonement once a year he shall make atonement on it throughout your generations.  Most holy it will be to the Lord.”

The pronoun he in the phrase he shall make atonement must refer not only to Aaron but also to each of his descendants who is designated as high priest.

וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר   30:11

Exod. 30:11   And the Lord spoke to Moses saying,

כִּי תִשָּׂא אֶת־רֹאשׁ בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לִפְקֻדֵיהֶם וְנָתְנוּ אִישׁ כֹּפֶר נַפְשֹׁו לַיהוָה בִּפְקֹד אֹתָם וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה   30:12

בָהֶם נֶגֶף בִּפְקֹד אֹתָם

Exod. 30:12   “When you will take a count of the children of Israel to number them, then they each shall give ransom of his soul to the Lord on your counting them, so no plague will be among them while numbering them.”

זֶה יִתְּנוּ כָּל־הָעֹבֵר עַל־הַפְּקֻדִים מַחֲצִית הַשֶּׁקֶל בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה הַשֶּׁקֶל מַחֲצִית   30:13

הַשֶּׁקֶל תְּרוּמָה לַיהוָה

Exod. 30:13   “All passing by the counters shall give this:  The half of a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary” -- the shekel is twenty gerahs.  “The half of a shekel is an offering to the Lord.”

כֹּל הָעֹבֵר עַל־הַפְּקֻדִים מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמָעְלָה יִתֵּן תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה   30:14

Exod. 30:14   “Everyone passing by the counters of age twenty years and older shall give an offering of the Lord.”

הֶעָשִׁיר לֹא־יַרְבֶּה וְהַדַּל לֹא יַמְעִיט מִמַּחֲצִית הַשָּׁקֶל לָתֵת אֶת־תְּרוּמַת יְהוָה לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם   30:15

Exod. 30:15   “The rich one shall not enlarge and the poor one shall not diminish from the half of a shekel to give the offering of the Lord as atonement for your souls.”

וְלָקַחְתָּ אֶת־כֶּסֶף הַכִּפֻּרִים מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְנָתַתָּ אֹתֹו עַל־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מֹועֵד וְהָיָה לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל   30:16

לְזִכָּרֹון לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם

Exod. 30:16   “And you shall take the money of atonement from the children of Israel and appoint it for the service of the tent of meeting and it shall be to the children of Israel for a remembrance before the Lord as atonement for your souls.”

וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר   30:17

Exod. 30:17   And the Lord spoke to Moses saying,

וְעָשִׂיתָ כִּיֹּור נְחֹשֶׁת וְכַנֹּו נְחֹשֶׁת לְרָחְצָה וְנָתַתָּ אֹתֹו בֵּין־אֹהֶל מֹועֵד וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְנָתַתָּ שָׁמָּה מָיִם   30:18

Exod. 30:18   “And you shall make a laver of brass and its base of brass, to wash, and you shall place it between the tent of meeting and the alter, and you shall put water there.”

וְרָחֲצוּ אַהֲרֹן וּבָנָיו מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם וְאֶת־רַגְלֵיהֶם   30:19

Exod. 30:19   “And Aaron and his descendants shall wash their hands and their feet out of it.”

All bibles with which I am familiar translate the third word in the verse as and his sons.  As before, I believe this is incorrect. as Aaron’s sons were not to enter the tent of meeting (see my remarks with Exod. 28:35), only the courtyard (see Exod. 29:9).  So this verse must refer to each of Aaron’s sons who would be designated high priest after his passing.  See v. 30:21 below.

בֹאָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מֹועֵד יִרְחֲצוּ־מַיִם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ אֹו בְגִשְׁתָּם אֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְשָׁרֵת לְהַקְטִיר אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה   30:20

Exod. 30:20   “On their going in to the tent of meeting they shall wash with water so they will not die.  Or on their coming near to the altar to minister, to bring an offering of fire to the Lord,

The first pronoun reference must indicate the high priests in their generations.  The second pronoun reference must indicate Aaron’s sons and their descendants other than the high priest.

וְרָחֲצוּ יְדֵיהֶם וְרַגְלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יָמֻתוּ וְהָיְתָה לָהֶם חָק־עֹולָם לֹו וּלְזַרְעֹו לְדֹרֹתָם   30:21

Exod. 30:21   then they shall wash their hands and their feet so they will not die.  And it will be for them an everlasting statute, for him and his seed throughout their generations.”

In this verse the supposed reference to Aaron’s sons in v. 30:19 is made explicit to include his descendants.

וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר   30:22

Exod. 30:22   And the Lord spoke to Moses saying,

וְאַתָּה קַח־לְךָ בְּשָׂמִים רֹאשׁ מָר־דְּרֹור חֲמֵשׁ מֵאֹות וְקִןְּמָן־בֶּשֶׂם מַחֲצִיתֹו חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתָיִם   30:23

וּקְנֵה־בֹשֶׂם חֲמִשִּׁים וּמָאתָיִם

Exod. 30:23   “And you take to you the best spices, five hundred shekels of flowing myrrh, and sweet cinnamon half of it, two hundred and fifty, and sweet calamus, two hundred and fifty,

וְקִדָּה חֲמֵשׁ מֵאֹות בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְשֶׁמֶן זַיִת הִין   30:24

Exod. 30:24   and cassia, five hundred, in the shekels of the sanctuary, and a hin of olive oil.”

וְעָשִׂיתָ אֹתֹו שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ רֹקַח מִרְקַחַת מַעֲשֵׂה רֹקֵחַ שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה   30:25

Exod. 30:25   “And you shall make a holy anointing oil with it, an aromatic ointment of the ointments being the product of a perfumer.  It shall be a holy anointing oil.”

וּמָשַׁחְתָּ בֹו אֶת־אֹהֶל מֹועֵד וְאֵת אֲרֹון הָעֵדֻת   30:26

Exod. 30:26   “And with it you shall anoint the tent of meeting and the ark of the testimony

וְאֶת־הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְאֶת־הַמְּנֹרָה וְאֶת־כֵּלֶיהָ וְאֵת מִזְבַּח הַקְּטֹרֶת   30:27

Exod. 30:27   and the table and all its vessels and the lamp stand and its implements and the altar of incense

וְאֶת־מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־כָּל־כֵּלָיו וְאֶת־הַכִּיֹּר וְאֶת־כַּנֹּו   30:28

Exod. 30:28   and the altar of burnt offering and all its implements and the laver and its base.”

וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם וְהָיוּ קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם יִקְדָּשׁ   30:29

Exod. 30:29   “And you shall sanctify them so they will be most holy.  Any one touching any of them must be holy.”

וְאֶת־אַהֲרֹן וְאֶת־בָּנָיו תִּמְשָׁח וְקִדַּשְׁתָּ אֹתָם לְכַהֵן לִי   30:30

Exod. 30:30   “And you shall anoint Aaron and his sons, and sanctify them to serve as priests for Me.”

וְאֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל תְּדַבֵּר לֵאמֹר שֶׁמֶן מִשְׁחַת־קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה זֶה לִי לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם   30:31

Exod. 30:31   “And you shall speak to the children of Israel saying, ‘This shall be a holy anointing oil for Me throughout your generations.’

עַל־בְּשַׂר אָדָם לֹא יִיסָךְ וּבְמַתְכֻּנְתֹּו לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ כָּמֹהוּ קֹדֶשׁ הוּא קֹדֶשׁ יִהְיֶה לָכֶם   30:32

Exod. 30:32  ’ It shall not be poured on human flesh, and you shall not make anything like it with its ingredients.  It is holy.  Holy it shall be to you.’

The first part of this must apply to human flesh other than Aaron’s and his descendants’.

אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר יִרְקַח כָּמֹהוּ וַאֲשֶׁר יִתֵּן מִמֶּנּוּ עַל־זָר וְנִכְרַת מֵעַמָּיו   30:33

Exod. 30:33   ‘Were someone to compound anything like it, or put some of it on a stranger, then he shall be cut off from his people.’”

וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה קַח־לְךָ סַמִּים נָטָף וּשְׁחֵלֶת וְחֶלְבְּנָה סַמִּים וּלְבֹנָה זַכָּה בַּד בְּבַד יִהְיֶה   30:24

Exod. 30:34   And the Lord said to Moses, “Take to you sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, and galbanum spices, and pure frankincense.  Each shall be of equal parts.”

וְעָשִׂיתָ אֹתָהּ קְטֹרֶת רֹקַח מַעֲשֵׂה רֹוקֵחַ מְמֻלָּח טָהֹור קֹדֶשׁ   30:35

Exod. 30:35   “And you shall make incense with it, a perfume the product of a perfumer, from pure holy seasoning.”

וְשָׁחַקְתָּ מִמֶּנָּה הָדֵק וְנָתַתָּה מִמֶּנָּה לִפְנֵי הָעֵדֻת בְּאֹהֶל מֹועֵד אֲשֶׁר אִוָּעֵד לְךָ שָׁמָּה קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים   30:36

תִּהְיֶה לָכֶם

Exod. 30:36   “And you shall beat some of it into powder and set some of it before the testimony in the tent of meeting when I will meet with you.  Most holy it shall be to you.”

וְהַקְּטֹרֶת אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה בְּמַתְכֻּנְתָּהּ לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ לָכֶם קֹדֶשׁ תִּהְיֶה לְךָ לַיהוָה   30:37

Exod. 30:37   “And the incense that you shall make, you shall not make for yourselves in its proportions.   Holy it shall be to you for the Lord.”

אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה כָמֹוהָ לְהָרִיחַ בָּהּ וְנִכְרַת מֵעַמָּיו   30:38

Exod. 30:38   “Someone who would make anything like it to enjoy it shall be cut off from his people.”

Torah Commandments in this Chapter

105. The high priest shall burn incense every morning and evening throughout

         the generations.   V. 30:7, 30:8

106. You shall not offer anything but holy incense on the incense altar.   V. 30:9

107. The high priest shall make atonement on the horns of the incense

        altar once a year.   V. 30:10

108. The high priest shall wash himself and his hands and feet before entering

         the Tabernacle/Temple.   V. 30:20,21

109. The priests shall wash themselves and their hands and feet before

        entering the courtyard.   V. 30:20,21

110. You shall not pour the holy anointing oil on the flesh of any other than

        that of priests.   V. 30:32

111. You shall not make an oil using the ingredients of the holy anointing oil.   V. 30:32

112. Anyone compounding the holy anointing oil or putting it on a stranger

        shall be cut off from his people.   V. 30:33

113. You shall make no incense like the holy incense of the tent of

        meeting.   V. 30:37

114. Anyone duplicating the holy incense for his enjoyment shall be cut off

        from his people.   V. 30:38

 

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