Deuteronomy 5

 

וַיִּקְרָא מֹשֶׁה אֶל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַחֻקִּים וְאֶת־הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי   5:1

דֹּבֵר בְּאָזְנֵיכֶם הַיֹּום וּלְמַדְתֶּם אֹתָם וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם לַעֲשֹׂתָם

Deut. 5:1    And Moses proclaimed to all Israel, and he said to them, “Israel!  Hear the statutes and the ordinances that I am speaking in your ears today so you will learn them and take heed to observe them.”

Although Moses starts his speech with the exclamation, Israel (singular), he continues to speak to each of the individuals in the rest of this verse.  The two second-person pronouns are plural.

יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ כָּרַת עִמָּנוּ בְּרִית בְּחֹרֵב   5:2

Deut. 5:2    “The Lord, our God, made a covenant with us in Horeb.”

לֹא אֶת־אֲבֹתֵינוּ כָּרַת יְהוָה אֶת־הַבְּרִית הַזֹּאת כִּי אִתָּנוּ אֲנַחְנוּ אֵלֶּה פֹה הַיֹּום כֻּלָּנוּ חַיִּים   5:3

Deut. 5:3    “Not with our fathers did the Lord make this covenant, but with us, we who are here today, all of us living.”

In other words, the Lord made His covenant with each and every generation of the children of Israel until the end of time.

פָּנִים בְּפָנִים דִּבֶּר יְהוָה עִםָּכֶם בָּהָר מִתֹּוךְ הָאֵשׁ   5:4

Deut. 5:4    “The Lord spoke with you face to face on the mountain from within the fire,

אָנֹכִי עֹמֵד בֵּין־יְהוָה וּבֵינֵיכֶם בָּעֵת הַהִוא לְהַגִּיד לָכֶם אֶת־דְּבַר יְהוָה כִּי יְרֵאתֶם מִפְּנֵי הָאֵשׁ וְלֹא־   5:5

עֲלִיתֶם בָּהָר לֵאמֹר

Deut. 5:5    (I was standing between the Lord and you at that time to explain the word of the Lord to you, for you were afraid because of the fire and you did not go up on the mountain) saying,

In the next thirteen verses, Moses paraphrases the ten commandments.  The Hebrew, except for some rather minor variations, and some additions by Moses, is the same as it is in Exodus 20.

אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר הֹוצֵאתִיךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם מִבֵּית עֲבָדִים   5:6

Deut. 5:6    ‘I am the Lord, your God, Who brought you forth from the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage,’

לֹא יִהְיֶה־לְךָ אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים עַל־פָּנָיַ   5:7

Deut. 5:7    ‘There shall be no other gods for you besides Me.’

לֹא־תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל כָּל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ   5:8

Deut. 5:8    ‘You shall not make for yourself a graven image of any likeness of whatever is in heaven above or that is on the earth below or that is in the water beneath the earth.’

לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֹן אָבֹות עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים   5:9

וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי

Deut. 5:9    ‘You shall not bow down to them and you shall not serve them, for I, the Lord, your God, am a possessive God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children and on the third and on the fourth generations for My enemies,

וְעֹשֶׂה חֶסֶד לַאֲלָפִים לְאֹהֲבַי וּלְשֹׁמְרֵי (מִצְוֹתֹו) [מִצְוֹתָי]   5:10

Deut. 5:10  yet showing mercy to the thousandth generation for those loving Me and for the observers of My commandments.’”

The last word in this verse, in parentheses, is in error and the corrected word is in the brackets.  The second vav should undoubtedly be a yad.

לֹא תִשָּׂא אֶת־שֵׁם־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַשָּׁוְא כִּי לֹא יְנַקֶּה יְהוָה אֵת אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׂא אֶת־שְׁמֹו לַשָּׁוְא   5:11

Deut. 5:11  “You shall not take the name of the Lord, your God, in vain, for the Lord will not hold guiltless he who would take His name in vain.”

שָׁמֹור אֶת־יֹום הַשַּׁבָּת לְקַדְּשֹׁו כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ   5:12

Deut. 5:12  “Observe the Sabbath day to keep it holy,’ as the Lord, your God, commanded you.”

It seems that Moses has now begun speaking for himself with this verse, speaking about the Lord and His instructions to us.

שֵׁשֶׁת יָמִים תַּעֲבֹד וְעָשִׂיתָ כָּֿל־מְלַאכְתֶּךָ   5:13

Deut. 5:13  “Six days you shall labor and perform all your work,

וְיֹום הַשְּׁבִיעִי שַׁבָּת לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה כָל־מְלָאכָה אַתָּה וּבִנְךָ־וּבִתֶּךָ וְעַבְדְּךָ־וַאֲמָתֶךָ   5:14

וְשֹׁורְךָ וַחֲמֹרְךָ וְכָל־בְּהֶמְתֶּךָ וְגֵרְךָ אֲשֶׁר בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ לְמַעַן יָנוּחַ עַבְדְּךָ וַאֲמָתְךָ כָּמֹוךָ

Deut. 5:14  but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord, your God.  You shall not perform any work, you and your son and your daughter and your manservant and your maidservant and your ox and your ass and all your cattle, and your guest who is within your gates, in order that your manservant may rest, as well as your maidservant, like you.”

וְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי־עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם וַיֹּצִאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ מִשָּׁם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה עַל־כֵּן   5:15

צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לַעֲשֹׂות אֶת־יֹום הַשַּׁבָּת

Deut. 5:15  “And you shall remember that you were a servant in the land of Egypt and the Lord, your God, brought you forth from there with a mighty hand and with an outstretched arm; therefore the Lord, your God, commanded you to observe the Sabbath day.”

כַּבֵּד אֶת־אָבִיךָ וְאֶת־אִמֶּךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוְּךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְמַעַן יַאֲרִיכֻן יָמֶיךָ וּלְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ עַל הָאֲדָמָה    5:16

אֲשֶׁר־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ

Deut. 5:16  “Honor your father and your mother as the Lord, your God, commanded you, in order that your days may be lengthened and so that it may be better for you on the land that the Lord, your God, is giving you.”

לֹא תִּֿרְצָח וְלֹא תִּֿנְאָף וְלֹא תִּֿגְנֹב וְלֹא־תַעֲנֶה בְרֵעֲךָ עֵד שָׁוְא וְלֹא תַחְמֹד אֵשֶׁת רֵעֶךָ  5:17

Deut. 5:17  “You shall not murder.  And you shall not commit adultery.  And you shall not steal.  And you shall not bear false witness concerning your neighbor.  And you shall not covet the wife of your neighbor.”

וְלֹא תִתְאַוֶּה בֵּית רֵעֶךָ שָׂדֵהוּ וְעַבְדֹּו וַאֲמָתֹו שֹׁורֹו וַחֲמֹרֹו וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לְרֵעֶךָ   5:18

Deut. 5:18  “And you shall not desire the house of your neighbor, his field, or his manservant, or his maidservant, his ox, his ass, or anything that is your neighbor’s.”

אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֶל־כָּל־קְהַלְכֶם בָּהָר מִתֹּוךְ הָאֵשׁ הֶעָןָן וְהָעֲרָפֶל קֹול גָּדֹול וְלֹא   5:19

יָסָף וַיִּכְתְּבֵם עַל־שְׁנֵי לֻחֹת אֲבָנִים וַיִּתְּנֵם אֵלָי

Deut. 5:19  “The Lord spoke these words to your entire assembly at the mountain from within the fire, the cloud, and the gloom; a great voice, that has not come again; and He wrote them upon two stone tablets and gave them to me.”

וַיְהִי כְּשָׁמְעֲכֶם אֶת־הַקֹּול מִתֹּוךְ הַחֹשֶׁךְ וְהָהָר בֹּעֵר בָּאֵשׁ וַתִּקְרְבוּן אֵלַי כָּל־רָאשֵׁי שִׁבְטֵיכֶם וְזִקְנֵיכֶם   5:20

Deut. 5:20  “And it was when you heard the voice from within the darkness and the mountain burned with fire, then you came close to me, all the heads of your tribes and your elders,

וַתֹּאמְרוּ הֵן הֶרְאָנוּ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֶת־כְּבֹדֹו וְאֶת־גָּדְלֹו וְאֶת־קֹלֹו שָׁמַעְנוּ מִתֹּוךְ הָאֵשׁ הַיֹּום הַזֶּה   5:21

רָאִינוּ כִּי־יְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם וָחָי

Deut. 5:21  and you said, ‘Behold, the Lord, our God, has shown us His glory and His greatness, and we have heard His voice from within the fire.  We have seen this day that God may speak with a man, and he may live.’

וְעַתָּה לָמָּה נָמוּת כִּי תֹאכְלֵנוּ הָאֵשׁ הַגְּדֹלָה הַזֹּאת אִם־יֹסְפִים אֲנַחְנוּ לִשְׁמֹעַ אֶת־קֹול יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ   5:22

עֹוד וָמָתְנוּ

Deut. 5:22  ‘So now why should we die?  For this great fire will consume us.  Should we continue to hear the voice of the Lord, our God, any more, then we would die.’

כִּי מִי כָל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַע קֹול אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים מְדַבֵּר מִתֹּוךְ־הָאֵשׁ כָּמֹנוּ וַיֶּחִי   5:23

Deut. 5:23  ‘For who of all flesh is there that has heard the voice of the living God speaking from within the fire like we have, and lived?’

קְרַב אַתָּה וּשֲׁמָע אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יֹאמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְאַתְּ תְּדַבֵּר אֵלֵינוּ אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר יְהוָה   5:24

אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֵלֶיךָ וְשָׁמַעְנוּ וְעָשִׂינוּ

Deut. 5:24  You go near and hear all that the Lord, our God, shall say, and you shall speak to us all that the Lord, our God, shall speak to you, and we shall hear and we will do.’”

The ninth word in the verse is the feminine form of the pronoun you, yet it refers to Moses.  Oddly, the first use of the same word (the second word in the verse) is masculine, and also refers to Moses.  One might consider this an error, but it happens elsewhere as well.  I’m inclined to accept it as it is written, and not question it further, though it leaves me feeling somewhat unfulfilled.                                       [Return to 1Sam. 24:19]

וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קֹול דִּבְרֵיכֶם בְּדַבֶּרְכֶם אֵלָי וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי שָׁמַעְתִּי אֶת־קֹול דִּבְרֵי הָעָם הַזֶּה    5:25

אֲשֶׁר דִּבְּרוּ אֵלֶיךָ הֵיטִיבוּ כָּל־אֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּרוּ

Deut. 5:25  “And the Lord heard the sound of your words on your speaking to me, and the Lord said to me, ‘I have heard the sound of the words of this people that they have spoken to you; all that they have spoken is good.’

מִי־יִתֵּן וְהָיָה לְבָבָם זֶה לָהֶם לְיִרְאָה אֹתִי וְלִשְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֹתַי כָּל־הַיָּמִים לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָהֶם   5:26

וְלִבְנֵיהֶם לְעֹלָם

Deut. 5:26  ‘If only their heart would be this way for them, to always revere Me and to keep all My commandments, so that it would be good for them and for their children forever!’

לֵךְ אֱמֹר לָהֶם שׁוּבוּ לָכֶם לְאָהֳלֵיכֶם   5:27

Deut. 5:27  ‘Go say to them, ‘Get yourselves back to your tents.’

וְאַתָּה פֹּה עֲמֹד עִמָּדִי וַאֲדַבְּרָה אֵלֶיךָ אֵת כָּל־הַמִּצְוָה וְהַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר תְּלַמְּדֵם וְעָשׂוּ   5:28

בָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי נֹתֵן לָהֶם לְרִשְׁתָּהּ

Deut. 5:28  ‘But you stand here with Me, and I will speak to you every commandment, and the statutes and the ordinances that you shall teach them, that they shall observe in the land that I am giving to them to possess it.’”

The fifth word in this verse consists of a first-person imperfect verb with a non-inverting vav prefix.  It is translated as and I will speak.

וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם לַעֲשֹׂות כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶתְכֶם לֹא תָסֻרוּ יָמִין וּשְׂמֹאל   5:29

Deut. 5:29  “So you shall take heed to do as the Lord, your God, has commanded you.  You shall not stray right or left.”

בְּכָל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֶתְכֶם תֵּלֵכוּ לְמַעַן תִּחְיוּן וְטֹוב לָכֶם וְהַאֲרַכְתֶּם יָמִים בָּאָרֶץ   5:30

אֲשֶׁר תִּירָשׁוּן

Deut. 5:30  “You shall walk in every way that the Lord, your God, has commanded you, in order that you may live, and it may be good for you, and you may prolong the days in the land that you will possess.”

The last two verses, 5:29 and 5:30, contain all plural second-person pronouns, so in my opinion Moses is speaking to each of the children of Israel.

 

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