2Samuel 8

 

וַיְהִי אַחֲרֵי־כֵן וַיַּךְ דָּוִד אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּים וַיַּכְנִיעֵם וַיִּקַּח דָּוִד אֶת־מֶתֶג הָאַמָּה מִיַּד פְּלִשְׁתִּים׃   8:1

2Sam. 8:1   And it was after this that David smote the Philistines and subdued them, and David took the bridle of the mother city from the hand of the Philistines.

This appears to be another of those cases in which the phrase and it was after this does not indicate a chronological sequence.  The previous chapter informed us that David was at peace and the Lord had removed all his enemies.  I believe that either this chapter is misplaced in the order of chapters or the scribe decided to summarize previous military escapades of David’s in this chapter for reasons that are lost to us.  Maybe it’s just a break from the personal stories of David in the previous and subsequent chapters.

The phrase the bridle of the mother city (literally the bridle of the mother) is thought to be either an unknown name or a reference to the city of Gath, the Philistine capital.

וַיַּךְ אֶת־מוֹאָב וַיְמַדְּדֵם בַּחֶבֶל הַשְׁכֵּב אוֹתָם אַרְצָה וַיְמַדֵּד שְׁנֵי־חֲבָלִים לְהָמִית וּמְלֹא הַחֶבֶל לְהַחֲיוֹת   8:2 וַתְּהִי מוֹאָב לְדָוִד לַעֲבָדִים נֹשְׂאֵי מִנְחָה׃

2Sam. 8:2   And he smote Moab.  Then he extended them in a line, making them lie down on the ground.  And he extended two lines, to put to death and the fullness of a line to keep alive.  Then Moab became for servants to David, bearers of gifts.               [Return to 1Chr. 18:2]

וַיַּךְ דָּוִד אֶת־הֲדַדְעֶזֶר בֶּן־רְחֹב מֶלֶךְ צוֹבָה בְּלֶכְתּוֹ לְהָשִׁיב יָדוֹ בִּנְהַר־פְּרָת׃   8:3

2Sam. 8:3   And David smote Hadadezer, the son of Rechob, king of Zobah, on his way to restore his hand at the river.

Most likely the person referred to as being on his way to restore his hand is Hadadezar, not David.  I presume that Hadadezar had intended to attack David.  The scholars don’t agree on the understanding of this phrase, as there is no clarification of it in Chronicles.  However, some think it is clarified in 2Samuel 10 (v. 15f.).

וַיִּלְכֹּד דָּוִד מִמֶּנּוּ אֶלֶף וּשְׁבַע־מֵאוֹת פָּרָשִׁים וְעֶשְׂרִים אֶלֶף אִישׁ רַגְלִי וַיְעַקֵּר דָּוִד אֶת־כָּל־הָרֶכֶב   8:4

  וַיּוֹתֵר מִמֶּנּוּ מֵאָה רָכֶב׃

2Sam. 8:4   And David captured one thousand and seven hundred horsemen and twenty thousand men on foot from him, and David houghed all of the chariot horses but preserved one hundred chariots from his.

The word houghed means hamstrung, that is, the practice of severing the Achilles tendons of a horse’s hind legs, thereby preventing it from running.  Incidentally, the last word in the verse, translated as chariots, can also be translated as chariot horses.                                                [Return to 1Chr. 18:4]

וַתָּבֹא אֲרַם דַּמֶּשֶׂק לַעְזֹר לַהֲדַדְעֶזֶר מֶלֶךְ צוֹבָה וַיַּךְ דָּוִד בַּאֲרָם עֶשְׂרִים־וּשְׁנַיִם אֶלֶף אִישׁ׃   8:5

2Sam. 8:5   And Aram of Damascus came to give aid to Hadadezer, king of Zobah, and David smote twenty-two thousand men among Aram.

וַיָּשֶׂם דָּוִד נְצִבִים בַּאֲרַם דַּמֶּשֶׂק וַתְּהִי אֲרָם לְדָוִד לַעֲבָדִים נוֹשְׂאֵי מִנְחָה וַיֹּשַׁע יְהוָה אֶת־דָּוִד בְּכֹל   8:6

 אֲשֶׁר הָלָךְ׃

2Sam. 8:6   And David set garrisons in Aram of Damascus and Aram became for servants to David, bearers of gifts.  And the Lord helped David everywhere that he went.

                                                                                                     [Return to 1Chr. 18:6]

וַיִּקַּח דָּוִד אֵת שִׁלְטֵי הַזָּהָב אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ אֶל עַבְדֵי הֲדַדְעָזֶר וַיְבִיאֵם יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃   8:7

2Sam. 8:7   And David took the shields of gold that were with the servants of Hadadezer and brought them to Jerusalem.

וּמִבֶּטַח וּמִבֵּרֹתַי עָרֵי הֲדַדְעָזֶר לָקַח הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד נְחֹשֶׁת הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃   8:8

2Sam. 8:8   And from Betach and from Berothai, cities of Hadadezer, king David took exceedingly much brass.

וַיִּשְׁמַע תֹּעִי מֶלֶךְ חֲמָת כִּי הִכָּה דָוִד אֵת כָּל־חֵיל הֲדַדְעָזֶר׃   8:9

2Sam. 8:9   And Toi, king of Hamath, heard that David had smitten the whole army of Hadadezer,

וַיִּשְׁלַח תֹּעִי אֶת־יוֹרָם־בְּנוֹ אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ־דָּוִד לִשְׁאָל־לוֹ לְשָׁלוֹם וּלְבָרֲכוֹ עַל אֲשֶׁר נִלְחַם בַּהֲדַדְעֶזֶרּ   8:10

  וַיַּכֵּהו כִּי־אִישׁ מִלְחֲמוֹת תֹּעִי הָיָה הֲדַדְעָזֶר וּבְיָדוֹ הָיוּ כְּלֵי־כֶסֶף וּכְלֵי־זָהָב וּכְלֵי נְחֹשֶׁת׃

2Sam. 8:10   and Toi sent Joram, his son, to king David to give greetings of peace to him and to praise him over which he had fought with Hadadezer and had smitten him, for Hadadezer was a man of wars of Toi, and in his hand were vessels of silver and vessels of gold and vessels of brass.

The meaning and translation of the phrase Hadadezar was a man of wars of Toi is unclear because the Hebrew is somewhat obscure.  I suspect the possibility of an error in the spelling of the word tAmx]l.mi, meaning wars or battles.  If I can offer an alternative as a correction, it would be hm'x'l.mi, meaning war of.  That would at least correct the Hebrew, but it doesn’t clarify the meaning of the phrase.  The prevailing assumption is that Hadadezar had beaten Toi in previous battles, and David’s having defeated him indicated how strong David was.  Thus he would desire friendly relations with him.

גַּם־אֹתָם הִקְדִּישׁ הַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד לַיהוָה עִם־הַכֶּסֶף וְהַזָּהָב אֲשֶׁר הִקְדִּישׁ מִכָּל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר כִּבֵּשׁ׃   8:11

2Sam. 8:11   King David also dedicated them to the Lord with the silver and the gold that he dedicated from all the nations that he subdued,

מֵאֲרָם וּמִמּוֹאָב וּמִבְּנֵי עַמּוֹן וּמִפְּלִשְׁתִּים וּמֵעֲמָלֵק וּמִשְּׁלַל הֲדַדְעֶזֶר בֶּן־רְחֹב מֶלֶךְ צוֹבָה׃   8:12

2Sam. 8:12   from Aram and from Moab and from the children of Ammon and from the Philistines and from Amalek and from the spoil of Hadadezer son of Rechob, king of Zobah.

וַיַּעַשׂ דָּוִד שֵׁם בְּשֻׁבוֹ מֵהַכּוֹתוֹ אֶת־אֲרָם בְּגֵיא־מֶלַח שְׁמוֹנָה עָשָׂר אָלֶף׃   8:13

2Sam. 8:13   And David made a name on his return from his smiting eighteen thousand of Aram in the valley of salt.

וַיָּשֶׂם בֶּאֱדוֹם נְצִבִים בְּכָל־אֱדוֹם שָׂם נְצִבִים וַיְהִי כָל־אֱדוֹם עֲבָדִים לְדָוִד וַיּוֹשַׁע יְהוָה אֶת־דָּוִד בְּכֹל   8:14 אֲשֶׁר הָלָךְ׃

2Sam. 8:14   And he set garrisons in Edom -- throughout Edom he set garrisons and everyone of Edom became servants to David.  And the Lord helped David everywhere that he went.

וַיִּמְלֹךְ דָּוִד עַל־כָּל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיְהִי דָוִד עֹשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה לְכָל־עַמּוֹ׃   8:15

2Sam. 8:15   And David reigned over all Israel and David was executing justice and righteousness for all his people.

וְיוֹאָב בֶּן־צְרוּיָה עַל־הַצָּבָא וִיהוֹשָׁפָט בֶּן־אֲחִילוּד מַזְכִּיר׃   8:16

2Sam. 8:16   And Joab son of Zeruiah was over the host and Jehoshaphat son of Achilud was the recorder.

וְצָדוֹק בֶּן־אֲחִיטוּב וַאֲחִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן־אֶבְיָתָר כֹּהֲנִים וּשְׂרָיָה סוֹפֵר׃   8:17

2Sam. 8:17   And Zadok son of Achitub and Achimelech son of Abiathar were priests and Saraiah was scribe.

וּבְנָיָהוּ בֶּן־יְהוֹיָדָע וְהַכְּרֵתִי וְהַפְּלֵתִי וּבְנֵי דָוִד כֹּהֲנִים הָיוּ׃   8:18

2Sam. 8:18   And Benaiah son of Jehoiada was with the Cherethites and the Pelethites, and the sons of David, they were princes.                                                 [Return to Zeph. 2:5]

 

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