וַיְהִי בְּבֹא דָוִד וַאֲנָשָׁיו צִקְלַג בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁלִישִׁי וַעֲמָלֵקִי פָשְׁטוּ אֶל־נֶגֶב וְאֶל־צִקְלַג וַיַּכּוּ אֶת־צִקְלַג 30:1 וַיִּשְׂרְפוּ אֹתָהּ בָּאֵשׁ׃
1Sam. 30:1 And it was when David came with his men to Ziklag on the third day, that the Amalekites had made a raid on the south and on Ziklag and had smitten Ziklag and burned it with fire,
וַיִּשְׁבּוּ אֶת־הַנָּשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־בָּהּ מִקָּטֹן וְעַד־גָּדוֹל לֹא הֵמִיתוּ אִישׁ וַיִּנְהֲגוּ וַיֵּלְכוּ לְדַרְכָּם׃ 30:2
1Sam. 30:2 and taken captive the women who were in it from the youngest and up to the oldest. They did not slay any but they carried off and went their way.
So there were enough Amalekites left after being smitten by Saul (v. 15:7) to smite Ziklag. As there were few fighting men left in Ziklag, it probably didn’t take too many of the Amalekites to triumph over the city. Nevertheless, this is a possible hint that some time had transpired between then and now, perhaps as much as ten years or more, for the Amalekites to have regained some of their strength.
וַיָּבֹא דָוִד וַאֲנָשָׁיו אֶל־הָעִיר וְהִנֵּה שְׂרוּפָה בָּאֵשׁ וּנְשֵׁיהֶם וּבְנֵיהֶם וּבְנֹתֵיהֶם נִשְׁבּוּ׃ 30:3
1Sam. 30:3 When David came with his men to the city, then behold, it was burned by fire, and their wives and their sons and their daughters had been taken captive.
וַיִּשָּׂא דָוִד וְהָעָם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ אֶת־קוֹלָם וַיִּבְכּוּ עַד אֲשֶׁר אֵין־בָּהֶם כֹּחַ לִבְכּוֹת׃ 30:4
1Sam. 30:4 Then David lifted, and the people who were with him, their voices and wept until when there was no longer in them any strength to weep.
וּשְׁתֵּי נְשֵׁי־דָוִד נִשְׁבּוּ אֲחִינֹעַם הַיִּזְרְעֵלִית וַאֲבִיגַיִל אֵשֶׁת נָבָל הַכַּרְמְלִי׃ 30:5
1Sam. 30:5 And the two wives of David were taken captive, Achinoam, the Jezreelitess, and Abigail, wife of Nabal, the Carmelite.
In 1Sam. 27:3 Abigail was referred to as a Carmelitess. Therefore, unless this is another scribe error, the reference is to Nabal rather than Abigail. If that’s so, then Nabal was not a calebite (see my discussion related to 1Sam. 25:3).
וַתֵּצֶר לְדָוִד מְאֹד כִּי־אָמְרוּ הָעָם לְסָקְלוֹ כִּי־מָרָה נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־הָעָם אִישׁ עַל־ (בְּנוֹ) [בָּנָיו] וְעַל־בְּנֹתָיו 30:6 וַיִּתְחַזֵּק דָּוִד בַּיהוָה אֱלֹהָיו׃
1Sam. 30:6 And there was great distress for David, for the people spoke of stoning him because the soul of all the people was bitter, each over his sons and over his daughters, but David was strengthened by the Lord, his God.
The word in the parentheses seems to be missing a yad. Without it, the word is singular in number, being translatable only as his son. Presumably it should be his sons. The correction appears in the brackets.
וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־אֶבְיָתָר הַכֹּהֵן בֶּן־אֲחִימֶלֶךְ הַגִּישָׁה־נָּא לִי הָאֵפֹד וַיַּגֵּשׁ אֶבְיָתָר אֶת־הָאֵפֹד אֶל־דָּוִד׃ 30:7
1Sam. 30:7 And David said to Abiathar, the priest, son of Achimelech, “Please bring the ephod here to me.” And Abiathar brought the ephod to David.
וַיִּשְׁאַל דָּוִד בַּיהוָה לֵאמֹר אֶרְדֹּף אַחֲרֵי הַגְּדוּד־הַזֶּה הַאַשִּׂגֶנּוּ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ רְדֹף כִּי־הַשֵּׂג תַּשִּׂיג וְהַצֵּל 30:8 תַּצִּיל׃
1Sam. 30:8 And David inquired with the Lord saying, “Should I chase after this troop? Will I overtake it?” And He said to him, “Pursue, for surely you will overtake and without fail recover.”
וַיֵּלֶךְ דָּוִד הוּא וְשֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ וַיָּבֹאוּ עַד־נַחַל הַבְּשׂוֹר וְהַנּוֹתָרִים עָמָדוּ׃ 30:9
1Sam. 30:9 So David went, he and the six hundred men who were with him, and they came as far as the brook of Besor and those who were left remained.
וַיִּרְדֹּף דָּוִד הוּא וְאַרְבַּע־מֵאוֹת אִישׁ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מָאתַיִם אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר פִּגְּרוּ מֵעֲבֹר אֶת־נַחַל הַבְּשׂוֹר׃ 30:10
1Sam. 30:10 But David pursued, he and four hundred men, while the two hundred men remained who were too exhausted to cross the brook of Besor.
וַיִּמְצְאוּ אִישׁ־מִצְרִי בַּשָּׂדֶה וַיִּקְחוּ אֹתוֹ אֶל־דָּוִד וַיִּתְּנוּ־לוֹ לֶחֶם וַיֹּאכַל וַיַּשְׁקֻהוּ מָיִם׃ 30:11
1Sam. 30:11 And they found an Egyptian in the field and brought him to David, and they gave bread to him and he ate, and they gave him water to drink.
וַיִּתְּנוּ־לוֹ פֶלַח דְּבֵלָה וּשְׁנֵי צִמֻּקִים וַיֹּאכַל וַתָּשָׁב רוּחוֹ אֵלָיו כִּי לֹא־אָכַל לֶחֶם וְלֹא־שָׁתָה מַיִם 30:12 שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים וּשְׁלֹשָׁה לֵילוֹת׃
1Sam. 30:12 And they gave part of a cake of figs and two bunches of raisins to him. When he had eaten, then his spirit returned to him, for he had not eaten bread and had not drunk water three days and three nights.
וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ דָוִד לְמִי־אַתָּה וְאֵי מִזֶּה אָתָּה וַיֹּאמֶר נַעַר מִצְרִי אָנֹכִי עֶבֶד לְאִישׁ עֲמָלֵקִי וַיַּעַזְבֵנִי אֲדֹנִי 30:13 כִּי חָלִיתִי הַיּוֹם שְׁלֹשָׁה׃
1Sam. 30:13 And David said to him, “Whose are you? And from where are you here?” And he said, “I am a young Egyptian, servant to an Amalekite. And my master left me because I was becoming sick three days ago.”
אֲנַחְנוּ פָּשַׁטְנוּ נֶגֶב הַכְּרֵתִי וְעַל־אֲשֶׁר לִיהוּדָה וְעַל־נֶגֶב כָּלֵב וְאֶת־צִקְלַג שָׂרַפְנוּ בָאֵשׁ׃ 30:14
1Sam. 30:14 “We made a raid to the south of the Cherethites and upon what is Judah's and upon the south of Caleb, and we burned Ziklag with fire.”
וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו דָּוִד הֲתוֹרִדֵנִי אֶל־הַגְּדוּד הַזֶּה וַיֹּאמֶר הִשָּׁבְעָה לִּי בֵאלֹהִים אִם־תְּמִיתֵנִי וְאִם־תַּסְגִּרֵנִי 30:15 בְּיַד־אֲדֹנִי וְאוֹרִדְךָ אֶל־הַגְּדוּד הַזֶּה׃
1Sam. 30:15 And David said to him, “Will you bring me down to this troop?” And he said, “Swear to me by God you will neither kill me nor deliver me into the hand of my master and I will take you down to this troop.”
וַיֹּרִדֵהוּ וְהִנֵּה נְטֻשִׁים עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ אֹכְלִים וְשֹׁתִים וְחֹגְגִים בְּכֹל הַשָּׁלָל הַגָּדוֹל אֲשֶׁר לָקְחוּ 30:16 מֵאֶרֶץ פְּלִשְׁתִּים וּמֵאֶרֶץ יְהוּדָה׃
1Sam. 30:16 When he brought him down, then behold, they were stretching out on the surface of all the ground eating and drinking and celebrating with all the great spoil that they had taken from the land of the Philistines and from the land of Judah.
וַיַּכֵּם דָּוִד מֵהַנֶּשֶׁף וְעַד־הָעֶרֶב לְמָחֳרָתָם וְלֹא־נִמְלַט מֵהֶם אִישׁ כִּי אִם־אַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת אִישׁ־נַעַר 30:17 אֲשֶׁר־רָכְבוּ עַל־הַגְּמַלִּים וַיָּנֻסוּ׃
1Sam. 30:17 And David smote them from the dawning and to the evening of the next day and no one escaped from them except four hundred young men who got up on the camels and fled.
וַיַּצֵּל דָּוִד אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר לָקְחוּ עֲמָלֵק וְאֶת־שְׁתֵּי נָשָׁיו הִצִּיל דָּוִד׃ 30:18
1Sam. 30:18 And David recovered all that the Amalekites had taken, and David rescued his two wives.
וְלֹא נֶעְדַּר־לָהֶם מִן־הַקָּטֹן וְעַד־הַגָּדוֹל וְעַד־בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת וּמִשָּׁלָל וְעַד כָּל־אֲשֶׁר לָקְחוּ לָהֶם הַכֹּל 30:19 הֵשִׁיב דָּוִד׃
1Sam. 30:19 And there was nothing lacking to them from the youngest and to the oldest, and of sons and daughters, and from the spoil, and including all that they had taken to them. Everything David brought back.
וַיִּקַּח דָּוִד אֶת־כָּל־הַצֹּאן וְהַבָּקָר נָהֲגוּ לִפְנֵי הַמִּקְנֶה הַהוּא וַיֹּאמְרוּ זֶה שְׁלַל דָּוִד׃ 30:20
1Sam. 30:20 And David took all the flocks, and the herds they drove in front of those flocks, as they said, “This is the spoil of David.”
וַיָּבֹא דָוִד אֶל־מָאתַיִם הָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר־פִּגְּרוּ מִלֶּכֶת אַחֲרֵי דָוִד וַיֹּשִׁיבֻם בְּנַחַל הַבְּשׂוֹר וַיֵּצְאוּ 30:21
לִקְרַאת דָּוִד וְלִקְרַאת הָעָם אֲשֶׁר־אִתּוֹ וַיִּגַּשׁ דָּוִד אֶת־הָעָם וַיִּשְׁאַל לָהֶם לְשָׁלוֹם׃
1Sam. 30:21 And David came to the two hundred men who had been too exhausted to go after David that he had made them stay by the brook of Besor, and they came forth to meet David and to meet the people who were with him, and David approached the people and wished for peace for them.
וַיַּעַן כָּל־אִישׁ־רָע וּבְלִיַּעַל מֵהָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר הָלְכוּ עִם־דָּוִד וַיֹּאמְרוּ יַעַן אֲשֶׁר לֹא־הָלְכוּ עִמִּי לֹא־נִתֵּן 30:22 לָהֶם מֵהַשָּׁלָל אֲשֶׁר הִצַּלְנוּ כִּי־אִם־אִישׁ אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו וְיִנְהֲגוּ וְיֵלֵכוּ׃
1Sam. 30:22 Then every wicked and worthless men of the men who went with David spoke and they said, “Because these did not go with me, we will not give to them from the spoil that we recovered, except for each man his wife and his children that they may lead away and go.”
The grammar in this verse is a bit strange. First, the Hebrew word for spoke (the first word in the verse) is singular, but the word for went is plural, as is the word for said. But the quote sounds as if one man, say a spokesman, was doing the saying for the rest of the men. This kind of number difficulty seems to appear from time to time. So it’s not too unusual. Still, in this verse, the number problem is more complex than is usually encountered. I have to guess that the spoke refers to every wicked and worthless man, the went refers to all the men, and the said refers to the men again, who may have allowed one representative to speak up for them.
וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ כֵן אֶחָי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־נָתַן יְהוָה לָנוּ וַיִּשְׁמֹר אֹתָנוּ וַיִּתֵּן אֶת־הַגְּדוּד הַבָּא עָלֵינוּ 30:23 בְּיָדֵנו׃ּ
1Sam. 30:23 But David said, “You shall not do so, my brethren, with what the Lord has given to us, as He has preserved us and delivered the troop that came against us into our hand,
וּמִי יִשְׁמַע לָכֶם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה כִּי כְּחֵלֶק הַיֹּרֵד בַּמִּלְחָמָה וּכְחֵלֶק הַיֹּשֵׁב עַל־הַכֵּלִים יַחְדָּו יַחֲלֹקוּ׃ 30:24
1Sam. 30:24 and Who will listen to you about this matter, for like the portion of who goes down in battle, so is the portion of who stays by the baggage. Together they shall share.”
וַיְהִי מֵהַיּוֹם הַהוּא וָמָעְלָה וַיְשִׂמֶהָ לְחֹק וּלְמִשְׁפָּט לְיִשְׂרָאֵל עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 30:25
1Sam. 30:25 And it was from that day and forward that he set it for a statute and an ordinance for Israel until this day.
Interesting! Did David himself ignore the admonition of Moses in Deut. 4:2 and 13:1? Or did he understand that the Lord’s instructions in Numb. 31:26 and 27 were a statute and an ordinance?
וַיָּבֹא דָוִד אֶל־צִקְלַג וַיְשַׁלַּח מֵהַשָּׁלָל לְזִקְנֵי יְהוּדָה לְרֵעֵהוּ לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה לָכֶם בְּרָכָה מִשְּׁלַל אֹיְבֵי 30:26 יְהוָה׃
1Sam. 30:26 When David came to Ziklag, then he sent from the spoil to the elders of Judah, to his friends, saying, “Behold, a present for you from the spoil of the enemies of the Lord,”
לַאֲשֶׁר בְּבֵית־אֵל וְלַאֲשֶׁר בְּרָמוֹת־נֶגֶב וְלַאֲשֶׁר בְּיַתִּר׃ 30:27
1Sam. 30:27 to those in Beth-el and to those in Ramoth of the south and to those in Jattir,
וְלַאֲשֶׁר בַּעֲרֹעֵר וְלַאֲשֶׁר בְּשִׂפְמוֹת וְלַאֲשֶׁר בְּאֶשְׁתְּמֹעַ׃ 30:28
1Sam. 30:28 and to those in Aroer and to those in Siphmoth and to those in Eshtemoa,
וְלַאֲשֶׁר בְּרָכָל וְלַאֲשֶׁר בְּעָרֵי הַיְּרַחְמְאֵלִי וְלַאֲשֶׁר בְּעָרֵי הַקֵּינִי׃ 30:29
1Sam. 30:29 and to those in Racal and to those in the cities of the Jerachmeelites and to those in the cities of the Kenites,
וְלַאֲשֶׁר בְּחָרְמָה וְלַאֲשֶׁר בְּבוֹר־עָשָׁן וְלַאֲשֶׁר בַּעֲתָךְ׃ 30:30
1Sam. 30:30 and to those in Hormah and to those in Cor-ashan and to those in Athach,
וְלַאֲשֶׁר בְּחֶבְרוֹן וּלְכָל־הַמְּקֹמוֹת אֲשֶׁר־הִתְהַלֶּךְ־שָׁם דָּוִד הוּא וַאֲנָשָׁיו׃ 30:31
1Sam. 30:31 and to those in Hebron, and to all the places that David used to haunt, he and his men.
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