1Samuel 22

 

וַיֵּלֶךְ דָּוִד מִשָּׁם וַיִּמָּלֵט אֶל־מְעָרַת עֲדֻלָּם וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶחָיו וְכָל־בֵּית אָבִיו וַיֵּרְדוּ אֵלָיו שָׁמָּה׃   22:1

1Sam. 22:1   Then David left from there and escaped to the cave of Adullam.  Then his brothers heard, and all the house of his father, and they came down to him there.

                                                                                                                                 [Return to Mica. 1:15]

וַיִּתְקַבְּצוּ אֵלָיו כָּל־אִישׁ מָצוֹק וְכָל־אִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ נֹשֶׁא וְכָל־אִישׁ מַר־נֶפֶשׁ וַיְהִי עֲלֵיהֶם לְשָׂר וַיִּהְיוּ   22:2 עִמּוֹ כְּאַרְבַּע מֵאוֹת אִישׁ׃

1Sam. 22:2   And everyone distressed gathered themselves to him, and everyone who had a debt and everyone of a bitter life, and he was to be a captain over them, and about four hundred men were with him.

וַיֵּלֶךְ דָּוִד מִשָּׁם מִצְפֵּה מוֹאָב וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־מֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב יֵצֵא־נָא אָבִי וְאִמִּי אִתְּכֶם עַד אֲשֶׁר אֵדַע   22:3 מַה־יַּעֲשֶׂה־לִּי אֱלֹהִים׃

1Sam. 22:3   And David went from there to Mizpeh of Moab, and he said to the king of Moab, “Let my father and my mother come out to be with you until when I know what God will do for me.”

There are apparently two places called Mizpeh, one in Gilead as mentioned repeatedly in Joshua and Judges, and one in Moab.

וַיַּנְחֵם אֶת־פְּנֵי מֶלֶךְ מוֹאָב וַיֵּשְׁבוּ עִמּוֹ כָּל־יְמֵי הֱיוֹת־דָּוִד בַּמְּצוּדָה׃   22:4

1Sam. 22:4   And he brought them before the king of Moab, and they stayed with him all the days of David's being in the stronghold.

וַיֹּאמֶר גָּד הַנָּבִיא אֶל־דָּוִד לֹא תֵשֵׁב בַּמְּצוּדָה לֵךְ וּבָאתָ־לְּךָ אֶרֶץ יְהוּדָה וַיֵּלֶךְ דָּוִד וַיָּבֹא יַעַר חָרֶת׃   22:5

1Sam. 22:5   And Gad, the prophet, said to David, “Do not stay in the stronghold.  Go and bring yourself to the land of Judah.”  So David left and came into the forest of Hereth.

Unless a long time transpired between vss. 22:4 and 22:5, which is highly unlikely, we have what seems to be another hasty error by the scribe.  In v. 22:4 we are told that David’s parents remained with the king all the days that David was in the stronghold.  But in this verse David apparently leaves very soon afterward.  Did his parents remain after he left? 

וַיִּשְׁמַע שָׁאוּל כִּי נוֹדַע דָּוִד וַאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ וְשָׁאוּל יוֹשֵׁב בַּגִּבְעָה תַּחַת־הָאֶשֶׁל בָּרָמָה וַחֲנִיתוֹ   22:6 בְיָדוֹ וְכָל־עֲבָדָיו נִצָּבִים עָלָיו׃

1Sam. 22:6   And Saul heard that David was discovered, and all the men who were with him, when Saul was seated in Gibeah under the Tamarisk tree in Ramah, with his spear in his hand, and all his servants present by him.

וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל לַעֲבָדָיו הַנִּצָּבִים עָלָיו שִׁמְעוּ־נָא בְּנֵי יְמִינִי גַּם־לְכֻלְּכֶם יִתֵּן בֶּן־יִשַׁי שָׂדוֹת וּכְרָמִים   22:7 לְכֻלְּכֶם יָשִׂים שָׂרֵי אֲלָפִים וְשָׂרֵי מֵאוֹת׃

1Sam. 22:7   And Saul said to his servants present by him, “Hear now, you Benjamites!  Will the son of Jesse also give fields and vineyards to all of you?  Will he appoint all of you captains of thousands and captains of hundreds,

כִּי קְשַׁרְתֶּם כֻּלְּכֶם עָלַי וְאֵין־גֹּלֶה אֶת־אָזְנִי בִּכְרָת־בְּנִי עִם־בֶּן־יִשַׁי וְאֵין־חֹלֶה מִכֶּם עָלַי וְגֹלֶה אֶת־אָזְנִי   22:8 כִּי הֵקִים בְּנִי אֶת־עַבְדִּי עָלַי לְאֹרֵב כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃

1Sam. 22:8   who have conspired, all of you, against me, that none opened my ears about the covenant of my son with the son of Jesse, and none from you was sorry for me and opened my ears when my son stirred up my servant against me to lie in wait, as this day?”

וַיַּעַן דֹּאֵג הָאֲדֹמִי וְהוּא נִצָּב עַל־עַבְדֵי־שָׁאוּל וַיֹּאמַר רָאִיתִי אֶת־בֶּן־יִשַׁי בָּא נֹבֶה אֶל־אֲחִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן־   22:9 אֲחִטוּב׃

1Sam. 22:9   And Doeg, the Edomite, answered, as he was set over the servants of Saul, and he said, “I saw the son of Jesse.  He came to Nob to Achimelech son of Achitub.”

וַיִּשְׁאַל־לוֹ בַּיהוָה וְצֵידָה נָתַן לוֹ וְאֵת חֶרֶב גָּלְיָת הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי נָתַן לוֹ׃   22:10

1Sam. 22:10   “And he inquired for him with the Lord, and he gave food to him, and he gave the sword of Goliath, the Philistine, to him.”

וַיִּשְׁלַח הַמֶּלֶךְ לִקְרֹא אֶת־אֲחִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן־אֲחִיטוּב הַכֹּהֵן וְאֵת כָּל־בֵּית אָבִיו הַכֹּהֲנִים אֲשֶׁר בְּנֹב וַיָּבֹאו   22:11ּ כֻלָּם אֶל־הַמֶּלֶךְ׃

1Sam. 22:11   Then the king sent to call Achimelech son of Achitub, the priest, and all the house of his father, the priests who were in Nob, and all of them came to the king.

וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל שְׁמַע־נָא בֶּן־אֲחִיטוּב וַיֹּאמֶר הִנְנִי אֲדֹנִי׃   22:12

1Sam. 22:12   And Saul said, “Hear now, son of Achitub!”  And he said, “Here I am, my lord.”

וַיֹּאמֶר (אֵלוֹ) [אֵלָיו] שָׁאוּל לָמָּה קְשַׁרְתֶּם עָלַי אַתָּה וּבֶן־יִשָׁי בְּתִתְּךָ לוֹ לֶחֶם וְחֶרֶב וְשָׁאוֹל לוֹ   22:13

  בֵּאלֹהִים לָקוּם אֵלַי לְאֹרֵב כַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃

1Sam. 22:13   And Saul said to him, “Why have you conspired against me, you and the son of Jesse, in your giving bread and a sword to him, and inquired for him with God to rise up against me to lie in wait as this day?”

The word in the parentheses normally has a yad in its spelling.  The correction is shown in the brackets.

וַיַּעַן אֲחִימֶלֶךְ אֶת־הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֹּאמַר וּמִי בְכָל־עֲבָדֶיךָ כְּדָוִד נֶאֱמָן וַחֲתַן הַמֶּלֶךְ וְסָר אֶל־מִשְׁמַעְתֶּךָ   22:14 וְנִכְבָּד בְּבֵיתֶךָ׃

1Sam. 22:14   And Achimelech answered the king and said, “And who among all your servants is trusted as David, and the son-in-law of the king, and departs to do your bidding, and is honorable in your house?”

הַיּוֹם הַחִלֹּתִי (לִשְָׁאוֹל־)[לִשְׁאָל־]לוֹ בֵאלֹהִים חָלִילָה לִּי אַל־יָשֵׂם הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּעַבְדּוֹ דָבָר בְּכָל־בֵּית   22:15

  אָבִי כִּי לֹא־יָדַע עַבְדְּךָ בְּכָל־זֹאת דָּבָר קָטֹן אוֹ גָדוֹל׃

1Sam. 22:15   “Have I today begun to inquire for him with God?  Far be it for me!  Let the king not put anything on his servant, on all the house of my father, for your servant did not know about any of this business, small or great.”

The word in the parentheses normally has no vav in its spelling.  The correction is shown in the brackets.

וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ מוֹת תָּמוּת אֲחִימֶלֶךְ אַתָּה וְכָל־בֵּית אָבִיךָ׃   22:16

1Sam. 22:16   And the king said, “You will surely die, Achimelech, you and all the house of your father.”

וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ לָרָצִים הַנִּצָּבִים עָלָיו סֹבּוּ וְהָמִיתוּ כֹּהֲנֵי יְהוָה כִּי גַם־יָדָם עִם־דָּוִד וְכִי יָדְעוּ כִּי־בֹרֵחַ   22:17 הוּא וְלֹא גָלוּ אֶת־ (אזנו) [אָזְנִי] וְלֹא־אָבוּ עַבְדֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ לִשְׁלֹחַ אֶת־יָדָם לִפְגֹעַ בְּכֹהֲנֵי יְהוָה׃

1Sam. 22:17   And the king said to the guards present by him, “Surround and slay the priests of the Lord, for their hand is also with David, and because they knew that he was fleeing, and did not open my ears.”  But the servants of the king were not willing to put forth their hand to fall upon the priests of the Lord.

The word in the parentheses should have a yad suffix in place of the vav.  The word in error would have to be translated as his ears whereas my ears is more appropriate.

וַיֹּאמֶר הַמֶּלֶךְ (לדּוֵֹיג) [לְדוֹאֵג] סֹב אַתָּה וּפְגַע בַּכֹּהֲנִים וַיִּסֹּב (דּוֵֹיג) [דּוֹאֵג] הָאֲדֹמִי וַיִּפְגַּע־הוּא   22:18 בַּכֹּהֲנִים וַיָּמֶת בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא שְׁמֹנִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אִישׁ נֹשֵׂא אֵפוֹד בָּד׃

1Sam. 22:18   And the king said to Doeg, “Turn, you, and fall upon the priests.  And Doeg, the Edomite, turned and he fell upon the priests and slew eighty-five men wearing an ephod of linen on that day.

This verse has the same error twice.  The words in parentheses, being the name of Doeg, should have an aleph in place of the yad

However, let me point out that the name of this man is spelled three different ways in the bible.  In 1Sam. 21:8 and v. 22:9 it appears as gaeD, in this verse and in v. 22:22 it appears as gyAeD, and then in Psal. 52:2 it appears as gaeAD.  So which is the “correct” spelling?  The sages have decided the last is the most appropriate, but the first, missing the vav, is equally “correct.”  Don’t you agree that this display of different spellings is a bit much, once more hinting at haste?  I can understand why the sages chose the spelling in Psalms as the most appropriate one.  They must have decided that it was most likely transcribed by a different scribe.                                           [Return to Psal. 52:2]

וְאֵת נֹב עִיר־הַכֹּהֲנִים הִכָּה לְפִי־חֶרֶב מֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה מֵעוֹלֵל וְעַד־יוֹנֵק וְשׁוֹר וַחֲמוֹר וָשֶׂה לְפִי־   22:19 חָרֶב׃

1Sam. 22:19   And he smote Nob, the city of priests, by the edge of the sword, both men and women, both children and sucklings, and oxen and asses and sheep, with the edge of the sword.

וַיִּמָּלֵט בֵּן־אֶחָד לַאֲחִימֶלֶךְ בֶּן־אֲחִטוּב וּשְׁמוֹ אֶבְיָתָר וַיִּבְרַח אַחֲרֵי דָוִד׃   22:20

1Sam. 22:20   But one of the sons of Achimelech son of Achitub escaped and his name was Abiathar, and he fled after David.

וַיַּגֵּד אֶבְיָתָר לְדָוִד כִּי הָרַג שָׁאוּל אֵת כֹּהֲנֵי יְהוָה׃   22:21

1Sam. 22:21   And Abiathar related to David how Saul had slain the priests of the Lord.

וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד לְאֶבְיָתָר יָדַעְתִּי בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כִּי־שָׁם (דּוֵֹיג) [דּוֹאֵג] הָאֲדֹמִי כִּי־הַגֵּד יַגִּיד לְשָׁאוּל אָנֹכִי   22:22

  סַבֹּתִי בְּכָל־נֶפֶשׁ בֵּית אָבִיךָ׃

1Sam. 22:22   Then David said to Abiathar, “I knew on that day when Doeg, the Edomite, was there that surely he would tell to Saul.  I am responsible for all the souls of the house of your father.”

שְׁבָה אִתִּי אַל־תִּירָא כִּי אֲשֶׁר־יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־נַפְשִׁי יְבַקֵּשׁ אֶת־נַפְשֶׁךָ כִּי־מִשְׁמֶרֶת אַתָּה עִמָּדִי׃   22:23

1Sam. 22:23   “Stay with me.  Do not fear that who seeks my life seeks your life, for you are safe with me.”

 

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