1Samuel 18

 

וַיְהִי כְּכַלֹּתוֹ לְדַבֵּר אֶל־שָׁאוּל וְנֶפֶשׁ יְהוֹנָתָן נִקְשְׁרָה בְּנֶפֶשׁ דָּוִד (וַיֶּאֱהָבוֹ) [וַיֶּאֱהָבֵהוּ] יְהוֹנָתָן   18:1

 כְּנַפְשׁוֹ׃

1Sam. 18:1   And it was after the end of his speaking to Saul that the heart of Jonathan was bound up with the heart of David and Jonathan loved him like his own soul.

The word in parentheses is missing the letter heh.  The correct spelling is in the brackets.

וַיִּקָּחֵהוּ שָׁאוּל בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וְלֹא נְתָנוֹ לָשׁוּב בֵּית אָבִיו׃   18:2

1Sam. 18:2   And Saul took him on that day and did not permit him to return to the house of his father.

וַיִּכְרֹת יְהוֹנָתָן וְדָוִד בְּרִית בְּאַהֲבָתוֹ אֹתוֹ כְּנַפְשׁוֹ׃   18:3

1Sam. 18:3   And Jonathan made a covenant with David because of his loving him like his own soul.

וַיִּתְפַּשֵּׁט יְהוֹנָתָן אֶת־הַמְּעִיל אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו וַיִּתְּנֵהוּ לְדָוִד וּמַדָּיו וְעַד־חַרְבּוֹ וְעַד־קַשְׁתּוֹ וְעַד־חֲגֹרוֹ׃   18:4

1Sam. 18:4   And Jonathan put off the robe that was on him and gave it to David, and his armor, and including his sword and including his bow and including his girdle.

וַיֵּצֵא דָוִד בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר יִשְׁלָחֶנּוּ שָׁאוּל יַשְׂכִּיל וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ שָׁאוּל עַל אַנְשֵׁי הַמִּלְחָמָה וַיִּיטַב בְּעֵינֵי   18:5

  כָל־הָעָם וְגַם בְּעֵינֵי עַבְדֵי שָׁאוּל׃

1Sam. 18:5   And David went forth.  Everywhere that Saul would send him, he would have good success.  And Saul placed him over the men of war, and it was good in the eyes of all the people as well as in the eyes of the servants of Saul.

וַיְהִי בְּבוֹאָם בְּשׁוּב דָּוִד מֵהַכּוֹת אֶת־הַפְּלִשְׁתִּי וַתֵּצֶאנָה הַנָּשִׁים מִכָּל־עָרֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל (לָשׁוֹר) [לָשִׁיר]   18:6 וְהַמְּחֹלוֹת לִקְרַאת שָׁאוּל הַמֶּלֶךְ בְּתֻפִּים בְּשִׂמְחָה וּבְשָׁלִשִׁים׃

1Sam. 18:6   And it was with their coming, when David returned from slaying the Philistine, that the women of all the cities of Israel came out singing and dancing to meet Saul, the king, with timbrels, with joy, and with three-stringed lutes.

The word in parentheses is thought to be misspelled.  This sort of error, where a vav replaces a yad (or vice versa), has appeared before, and I occasionally ignore the correction.  I do this when the “misspelled” word appears elsewhere in the bible with the same spelling.  In this case, the word and its correction appear only in this one verse, and nowhere else.  So there is no way to know what is the correct spelling.  The assumption of an error is based on other similar words.

וַתַּעֲנֶינָה הַנָּשִׁים הַמְשַׂחֲקוֹת וַתֹּאמַרְןָ הִכָּה שָׁאוּל (בַּאֱלְפוֹ) [בַּאֲלָפָיו] וְדָוִד בְּרִבְבֹתָיו׃   18:7

1Sam. 18:7   And the women sang with rejoicing and said,

                         “Saul has slain by his thousands,

                               and David by his ten thousands.”

The word in parentheses is missing the letter yad.  The noun phrase is in the singular without it, being then translated as by his thousand.  The correct spelling, making the noun plural, is in the brackets.

                                                                                                                                [Return to 1Sam. 21:12]

וַיִּחַר לְשָׁאוּל מְאֹד וַיֵּרַע בְּעֵינָיו הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה וַיֹּאמֶר נָתְנוּ לְדָוִד רְבָבוֹת וְלִי נָתְנוּ הָאֲלָפִים וְעוֹד לוֹ אַךְ   18:8 הַמְּלוּכָה׃

1Sam. 18:8   And the anger of Saul was great as this message was hurtful in his eyes, and he said, “They have ascribed to David tens of thousands while to me they have ascribed only thousands.  And henceforth even the kingdom will be his.”

וַיְהִי שָׁאוּל (עָוֹן) [עוֹיֵן] אֶת־דָּוִד מֵהַיּוֹם הַהוּא וָהָלְאָה׃   18:9

1Sam. 18:9   And Saul was watching David from that day and forward.

The word in parentheses is not appropriate in this context, having a completely different meaning from what would be reasonable.  The missing yad makes the word more correct as it is shown in the brackets.  Once more the frequency of errors hints at haste by the scribe.

וַיְהִי מִמָּחֳרָת וַתִּצְלַח רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים רָעָה אֶל־שָׁאוּל וַיִּתְנַבֵּא בְתוֹךְ־הַבַּיִת וְדָוִד מְנַגֵּן בְּיָדוֹ כְּיוֹם בְּיוֹם   18:10 וְהַחֲנִית בְּיַד־שָׁאוּל׃

1Sam. 18:10   And it happened the next day that an evil spirit of God came mightily to Saul and he prophesied in the midst of the house, and David was playing by his hand like day in day out, and the spear was in the hand of Saul.

וַיָּטֶל שָׁאוּל אֶת־הַחֲנִית וַיֹּאמֶר אַכֶּה בְדָוִד וּבַקִּיר וַיִּסֹּב דָּוִד מִפָּנָיו פַּעֲמָיִם׃   18:11

1Sam. 18:11   And Saul cast the spear as he said, “I will strike against David and against the wall.”  But David turned away from his presence just in time.

וַיִּרָא שָׁאוּל מִלִּפְנֵי דָוִד כִּי־הָיָה יְהוָה עִמּוֹ וּמֵעִם שָׁאוּל סָר׃   18:12

1Sam. 18:12   Then Saul was afraid of being in the presence of David, because the Lord was with him, but He had withdrawn from being with Saul.

וַיְסִרֵהוּ שָׁאוּל מֵעִמּוֹ וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ לוֹ שַׂר־אָלֶף וַיֵּצֵא וַיָּבֹא לִפְנֵי הָעָם׃   18:13

1Sam. 18:13   So Saul removed him from being with him and appointed him his captain of a thousand.  And he went out and came in before the people.

וַיְהִי דָוִד לְכָל־דָּרְכָו מַשְׂכִּיל וַיהוָה עִמּוֹ׃   18:14

1Sam. 18:14   But David was successful in all his ways, and the Lord was with him.

וַיַּרְא שָׁאוּל אֲשֶׁר־הוּא מַשְׂכִּיל מְאֹד וַיָּגָר מִפָּנָיו׃   18:15

1Sam. 18:15   When Saul observed that he was very successful, then he dreaded being in his presence.

וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל וִיהוּדָה אֹהֵב אֶת־דָּוִד כִּי־הוּא יוֹצֵא וָבָא לִפְנֵיהֶם׃   18:16

1Sam. 18:16   But all of Israel and of Judah loved David because he went out and came in before them.

וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל אֶל־דָּוִד הִנֵּה בִתִּי הַגְּדוֹלָה מֵרַב אֹתָהּ אֶתֶּן־לְךָ לְאִשָּׁה אַךְ הֱיֵה־לִּי לְבֶן־חַיִל וְהִלָּחֵם   18:17 מִלְחֲמוֹת יְהוָה וְשָׁאוּל אָמַר אַל־תְּהִי יָדִי בּוֹ וּתְהִי־בוֹ יַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּים׃

1Sam. 18:17   And Saul said to David, “Behold, my oldest daughter Merab, I will give her to you to be a wife, only be a valiant man for me and fight the battles of the Lord.”   But Saul thought, “My hand will not be on him, but the hand of the Philistines will be on him.”

וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד אֶל־שָׁאוּל מִי אָנֹכִי וּמִי חַיַּי מִשְׁפַּחַת אָבִי בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי־אֶהְיֶה חָתָן לַמֶּלֶךְ׃   18:18

1Sam. 18:18   And David said to Saul, “Who am I, and who of the family of my father lives in Israel, that I should be the son-in-law of the king?”

וַיְהִי בְּעֵת תֵּת אֶת־מֵרַב בַּת־שָׁאוּל לְדָוִד וְהִיא נִתְּנָה לְעַדְרִיאֵל הַמְּחֹלָתִי לְאִשָּׁה׃   18:19

1Sam. 18:19   But it was at the time to give Merab, the daughter of Saul, to David that she was given to Adriel the Meholathite for a wife.                                                      [Return to 2Sam. 21:8]

וַתֶּאֱהַב מִיכַל בַּת־שָׁאוּל אֶת־דָּוִד וַיַּגִּדוּ לְשָׁאוּל וַיִּשַׁר הַדָּבָר בְּעֵינָיו׃   18:20

1Sam. 18:20   And Michal, the daughter of Saul, loved David.  When they told to Saul, then the matter was convenient in his eyes.

וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל אֶתְּנֶנָּה לּוֹ וּתְהִי־לוֹ לְמוֹקֵשׁ וּתְהִי־בוֹ יַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּים וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל אֶל־דָּוִד בִּשְׁתַּיִם   18:21 תִּתְחַתֵּן בִּי הַיּוֹם׃

1Sam. 18:21   And Saul thought, “I will give her to him and she will be for a snare to him, so the hand of the Philistines may be on him.  So Saul said to David, “By the second you shall be a son-in-law of mine today.”

וַיְצַו שָׁאוּל אֶת־עֲבָדָו דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־דָּוִד בַּלָּט לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה חָפֵץ בְּךָ הַמֶּלֶךְ וְכָל־עֲבָדָיו אֲהֵבוּךָ וְעַתָּה   18:22 הִתְחַתֵּן בַּמֶּלֶךְ׃

1Sam. 18:22   Then Saul commanded his servants: “Speak to David in secret saying, ‘Behold, the king is pleased with you, and all his servants love you; so now be a son-in-law of the king's.’”

וַיְדַבְּרוּ עַבְדֵי שָׁאוּל בְּאָזְנֵי דָוִד אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִד הַנְקַלָּה בְעֵינֵיכֶם הִתְחַתֵּן בַּמֶּלֶךְ   18:23 וְאָנֹכִי אִישׁ־רָשׁ וְנִקְלֶה׃

1Sam. 18:23   And the servants spoke these words of Saul in the ears of David, and David answered, “Is it a light thing in your eyes to be the son-in-law of the king's when I am a poor man and lightly esteemed?”

וַיַּגִּדוּ עַבְדֵי שָׁאוּל לוֹ לֵאמֹר כַּדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה דִּבֶּר דָּוִד׃   18:24

1Sam. 18:24   Then the servants of Saul told to him saying, “David spoke words like these.”

וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל כֹּה־תֹאמְרוּ לְדָוִד אֵין־חֵפֶץ לַמֶּלֶךְ בְּמֹהַר כִּי בְּמֵאָה עָרְלוֹת פְּלִשְׁתִּים לְהִנָּקֵם בְּאֹיְבֵי   18:25 הַמֶּלֶךְ וְשָׁאוּל חָשַׁב לְהַפִּיל אֶת־דָּוִד בְּיַד־פְּלִשְׁתִּים׃

1Sam. 18:25   Then Saul said, “Thus shall you say to David:  ‘There is no pleasure for the king in any dowry, but in one hundred Philistine foreskins for revenge against the enemies of the king.’”   So Saul thought to make David fall into the hand of the Philistines.

וַיַּגִּדוּ עֲבָדָיו לְדָוִד אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וַיִּשַׁר הַדָּבָר בְּעֵינֵי דָוִד לְהִתְחַתֵּן בַּמֶּלֶךְ וְלֹא מָלְאוּ הַיָּמִים׃   18:26

1Sam. 18:26   When his servants told these words to David, then the matter was fair in the eyes of David to be son-in-law of the king's.  And the days were not expired

וַיָּקָם דָּוִד וַיֵּלֶךְ הוּא וַאֲנָשָׁיו וַיַּךְ בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים מָאתַיִם אִישׁ וַיָּבֵא דָוִד אֶת־עָרְלֹתֵיהֶם וַיְמַלְאוּם לַמֶּלֶךְ   18:27 לְהִתְחַתֵּן בַּמֶּלֶךְ וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ שָׁאוּל אֶת־מִיכַל בִּתּוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃

1Sam. 18:27   when David arose and went, he and his men, and slew among the Philistines two hundred men. And David brought their foreskins, and they gave them in fulfillment to the king to make him become the son-in-law of the king's.  And Saul gave Michal, his daughter, to him to be a wife.

וַיַּרְא שָׁאוּל וַיֵּדַע כִּי יְהוָה עִם־דָּוִד וּמִיכַל בַּת־שָׁאוּל אֲהֵבַתְהוּ׃   18:28

1Sam. 18:28   And Saul saw, and knew that the Lord was with David, and Michal, the daughter of Saul, loved him. 

וַיֹּאסֶף שָׁאוּל לֵרֹא מִפְּנֵי דָוִד עוֹד וַיְהִי שָׁאוּל אֹיֵב אֶת־דָּוִד כָּל־הַיָּמִים׃   18:29

1Sam. 18:29   But Saul continued to be more afraid of the presence of David, and Saul was against David all the time.

וַיֵּצְאוּ שָׂרֵי פְלִשְׁתִּים וַיְהִי מִדֵּי צֵאתָם שָׂכַל דָּוִד מִכֹּל עַבְדֵי שָׁאוּל וַיִּיקַר שְׁמוֹ מְאֹד׃   18:30

1Sam. 18:30   And the princes of the Philistines came forth, and it was, whenever they came forth, David had more success than all the servants of Saul, and his name was much honored.

 

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