וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל עַד־מָתַי אַתָּה מִתְאַבֵּל אֶל־שָׁאוּל וַאֲנִי מְאַסְתִּיו מִמְּלֹךְ עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל מַלֵּא 16:1 קַרְנְךָ שֶׁמֶן וְלֵךְ אֶשְׁלָחֲךָ אֶל־יִשַׁי בֵּית־הַלַּחְמִי כִּי־רָאִיתִי בְּבָנָיו לִי מֶלֶךְ׃
1Sam. 16:1 And the Lord said to Samuel, “How long will you be mourning for Saul that I have rejected him as king over Israel? Fill your horn of oil and go. I shall send you to Jesse, the Beth-lehemite, for I have seen a king for Me among his sons.”
וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֵיךְ אֵלֵךְ וְשָׁמַע שָׁאוּל וַהֲרָגָנִי ס וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה עֶגְלַת בָּקָר תִּקַּח בְּיָדֶךָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִזְבֹּח 16:2ַ לַיהוָה בָּאתִי׃
1Sam. 16:2 But Samuel said, “How can I go? When Saul hears, then he will kill me.” Then the Lord said, “You shall take a young heifer in your hand, and say, “I have come to sacrifice to the Lord.”
וְקָרָאתָ לְיִשַׁי בַּזָּבַח וְאָנֹכִי אוֹדִיעֲךָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר־תַּעֲשֶׂה וּמָשַׁחְתָּ לִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־אֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ׃ 16:3
1Sam. 16:3 “And call to Jesse to come to the sacrifice, and I will show you what you shall do, and you will anoint for Me whom I will declare to you.”
וַיַּעַשׂ שְׁמוּאֵל אֵת אֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר יְהוָה וַיָּבֹא בֵּית לָחֶם וַיֶּחֶרְדוּ זִקְנֵי הָעִיר לִקְרָאתוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁלֹם בּוֹאֶךָ׃ 16:4
1Sam. 16:4 And Samuel did that which the Lord had spoken and came to Beth-lehem. And the elders of the city were afraid to meet him and said, “Is your coming peaceful?”
וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁלוֹם לִזְבֹּחַ לַיהוָה בָּאתִי הִתְקַדְּשׁוּ וּבָאתֶם אִתִּי בַּזָּבַח וַיְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת־יִשַׁי וְאֶת־בָּנָיו וַיִּקְרָא 16:5 לָהֶם לַזָּבַח׃
1Sam. 16:5 And he said, “Peaceful. I have come to sacrifice to the Lord. Sanctify yourselves and you can come with me to the sacrifice.” And he sanctified Jesse and his sons and called them to the sacrifice.
Again we find that sacrifices were made in several different places in Israel. Are not these violations of the commandments? The Lord said in numerous verses in Deuteronomy that sacrifices and tithes were to be brought to the place that He will choose. See, for example, Exod. 20:21. Because the practice is treated so seemingly casually by the scribe, I presume that it was common practice to sacrifice in a variety of places, at least some of which had not been chosen by the Lord. How accepting and forgiving of the Lord to accede to the free-will choices of the people when -- apparently -- their intentions might be good, or at least customary!
וַיְהִי בְּבוֹאָם וַיַּרְא אֶת־אֱלִיאָב וַיֹּאמֶר אַךְ נֶגֶד יְהוָה מְשִׁיחוֹ׃ 16:6
1Sam. 16:6 And it was on their arrival that he saw Eliab and said, “Surely before the Lord is His anointed.”
וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־שְׁמוּאֵל אַל־תַּבֵּט אֶל־מַרְאֵהוּ וְאֶל־גְּבֹהַּ קוֹמָתוֹ כִּי מְאַסְתִּיהוּ כִּי לֹא אֲשֶׁר יִרְאֶה 16:7 הָאָדָם כִּי הָאָדָם יִרְאֶה לַעֵינַיִם וַיהוָה יִרְאֶה לַלֵּבָב׃
1Sam. 16:7 But the Lord said to Samuel, “Do not look to his handsomeness or the height of his stature, because I have rejected him, for it is not what man can see, because man can see only according to the eyes, but the Lord would look to the heart.”
וַיִּקְרָא יִשַׁי אֶל־אֲבִינָדָב וַיַּעֲבִרֵהוּ לִפְנֵי שְׁמוּאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר גַּם־בָּזֶה לֹא־בָחַר יְהוָה׃ 16:8
1Sam. 16:8 Then Jesse called to Abinadab and passed him before Samuel, and he said, “This one also the Lord has not chosen.”
וַיַּעֲבֵר יִשַׁי שַׁמָּה וַיֹּאמֶר גַּם־בָּזֶה לֹא־בָחַר יְהוָה׃ 16:9
1Sam. 16:9 Then Jesse passed Shammah, and he said, “This one also the Lord has not chosen.”
וַיַּעֲבֵר יִשַׁי שִׁבְעַת בָּנָיו לִפְנֵי שְׁמוּאֵל וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־יִשַׁי לֹא־בָחַר יְהוָה בָּאֵלֶּה׃ 16:10
1Sam. 16:10 And Jesse passed seven of his sons before Samuel, and Samuel said to Jesse, “The Lord has not chosen any of these.”
וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל אֶל־יִשַׁי הֲתַמּוּ הַנְּעָרִים וַיֹּאמֶר עוֹד שָׁאַר הַקָּטָן וְהִנֵּה רֹעֶה בַּצֹּאן וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל 16:11 אֶל־יִשַׁי שִׁלְחָה וְקָחֶנּוּ כִּי לֹא־נָסֹב עַד־בֹּאוֹ פֹה׃
1Sam. 16:11 Then Samuel said to Jesse, “Are there no more of the young men?” And he said, “There remains yet the youngest, but behold, he is watching over the sheep.” And Samuel said to Jesse, “Send and bring him, for we will not sit down until his arrival here.”
וַיִּשְׁלַח וַיְבִיאֵהוּ וְהוּא אַדְמוֹנִי עִם־יְפֵה עֵינַיִם וְטוֹב רֹאִי וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה קוּם מְשָׁחֵהוּ כִּי־זֶה הוּא׃ 16:12
1Sam. 16:12 So he sent and brought him, and he was ruddy with a beauty of eyes and good to look at. And the Lord said, “Arise, anoint him, for this is he.”
וַיִּקַּח שְׁמוּאֵל אֶת־קֶרֶן הַשֶּׁמֶן וַיִּמְשַׁח אֹתוֹ בְּקֶרֶב אֶחָיו וַתִּצְלַח רוּחַ־יְהוָה אֶל־דָּוִד מֵהַיּוֹם הַהוּא 16:13 וָמָעְלָה וַיָּקָם שְׁמוּאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ הָרָמָתָה׃
1Sam. 16:13 So Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of his brothers, and the spirit of the Lord came mightily to David from that day forward. Then Samuel arose and went to Ramah.
וְרוּחַ יְהוָה סָרָה מֵעִם שָׁאוּל וּבִעֲתַתּוּ רוּחַ־רָעָה מֵאֵת יְהוָה׃ 16:14
1Sam. 16:14 Now the spirit of the Lord had withdrawn from being with Saul and an evil spirit from the Lord terrified him.
וַיֹּאמְרוּ עַבְדֵי־שָׁאוּל אֵלָיו הִנֵּה־נָא רוּחַ־אֱלֹהִים רָעָה מְבַעִתֶּךָ׃ 16:15
1Sam. 16:15 And servants of Saul said to him, “Behold now, it is an evil spirit of God terrifying you.”
יֹאמַר־נָא אֲדֹנֵנוּ עֲבָדֶיךָ לְפָנֶיךָ יְבַקְשׁוּ אִישׁ יֹדֵעַ מְנַגֵּן בַּכִּנּוֹר וְהָיָה בִּהְיוֹת עָלֶיךָ רוּחַ־אֱלֹהִים רָעָה 16:16 וְנִגֵּן בְּיָדוֹ וְטוֹב לָךְ׃
1Sam. 16:16 Let our lord now require of your servants before you they should seek someone with knowledge of playing on a harp, and it shall be, when the evil spirit of God is being upon you, that he will play with his hand and it will be good for you.”
וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁאוּל אֶל־עֲבָדָיו רְאוּ־נָא לִי אִישׁ מֵיטִיב לְנַגֵּן וַהֲבִיאוֹתֶם אֵלָי׃ 16:17
1Sam. 16:17 And Saul said to his servants, ”Provide someone for me now who is good to play and bring him to me.”
וַיַּעַן אֶחָד מֵהַנְּעָרִים וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה רָאִיתִי בֵּן לְיִשַׁי בֵּית הַלַּחְמִי יֹדֵעַ נַגֵּן וְגִבּוֹר חַיִל וְאִישׁ מִלְחָמָה 16:18 וּנְבוֹן דָּבָר וְאִישׁ תֹּאַר וַיהוָה עִמּוֹ׃
1Sam. 16:18 Then one of the servants responded and he said, “Behold, I have seen a son of Jesse, a Beth-lehemite, skilled at playing, and a mighty man of valor, and a man prudent in affairs of war and a man favored, and the Lord is with him.”
Here I believe the scribe got ahead of himself, describing David as he would be much later in time, probably shortly before he became king. This was some time before that.
וַיִּשְׁלַח שָׁאוּל מַלְאָכִים אֶל־יִשָׁי וַיֹּאמֶר שִׁלְחָה אֵלַי אֶת־דָּוִד בִּנְךָ אֲשֶׁר בַּצֹּאן׃ 16:19
1Sam. 16:19 So Saul sent messengers to Jesse and he said, “Send David, your son who is with the sheep, to me.”
Here’s an example of what seems to be the scribe’s shorthand. Notice “Saul sent messengers,” but then “he said, ....” Was it one of the messengers speaking or were these Saul’s words? The last two words, “to me,” appear to provide the answer. These were Saul’s words that the messengers brought with them. This kind of shorthand appears in numerous verses in the bible, but few are as informative and verifiable as this verse.
וַיִּקַּח יִשַׁי חֲמוֹר לֶחֶם וְנֹאד יַיִן וּגְדִי עִזִּים אֶחָד וַיִּשְׁלַח בְּיַד־דָּוִד בְּנוֹ אֶל־שָׁאוּל׃ 16:20
1Sam. 16:20 So Jesse took an ass, bread and a bottle of wine, and one young goat, and sent in the hand of David, his son, to Saul.
Notice the composition of the sacrifice: A meal offering, a drink offering, and a burnt offering.
וַיָּבֹא דָוִד אֶל־שָׁאוּל וַיַּעֲמֹד לְפָנָיו וַיֶּאֱהָבֵהוּ מְאֹד וַיְהִי־לוֹ נֹשֵׂא כֵלִים׃ 16:21
1Sam. 16:21 And David came to Saul and stood before him, and he loved him dearly, and he became for him the bearer of armor.
וַיִּשְׁלַח שָׁאוּל אֶל־יִשַׁי לֵאמֹר יַעֲמָד־נָא דָוִד לְפָנַי כִּי־מָצָא חֵן בְּעֵינָי׃ 16:22
1Sam. 16:22 And Saul sent to Jesse saying, “Let David stay, please, before me, for he has found favor in my eyes.”
וְהָיָה בִּהְיוֹת רוּחַ־אֱלֹהִים אֶל־שָׁאוּל וְלָקַח דָּוִד אֶת־הַכִּנּוֹר וְנִגֵּן בְּיָדוֹ וְרָוַח לְשָׁאוּל וְטוֹב לוֹ וְסָרָה 16:23 מֵעָלָיו רוּחַ הָרָעָה׃
1Sam. 16:23 And it was with the coming of the spirit of God to Saul that David took the harp and played by his hand, and it was refreshing for Saul, and better for him, and the evil spirit departed from him.
I assume (as have the sages and scholars) that the spirit mentioned by the scribe early in this verse is the same as the evil spirit mentioned at the end.
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